Changes in supply chain structure

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The impact of expanding consumer choice
The period from the 1960s to the present day has been a time
of considerable change, which has had a significant impact
on the supply chain within the food sector (Shutt and Clark
1995; IGD 2000a). This change has been led by the rise of the
big multiples, their commitment to convenience, quality and
speed in a one-stop shop environment (IGD 2000a) and their
keen interest in the reduction of product costs, cost cutting
strategies and central distribution systems.
These trends have proved to be largely incompatible with
traditional food sectors such as fresh produce wholesaling. It
is evident, that less than 10% of the retail food market (Mintel
1999a) will be available to the wholesale markets, as the multiples
expand through convenience retailing. There is clear
evidence that 80% of produce sourced to retailing and even
catering will be from the top five global food manufacturers or
processors (Hughes 2000). This will result in the continued
decline of regional and national suppliers and may affect the
range of produce available to the consumer, e.g. species of apples.
Yet at variance with this trend, consumers are increasingly
concerned with produce choice and the provenance of food they
consume. In addition, farmers, horticulturalists and the wholesale
sector are looking for alternative customers to the major
supermarkets. These trends appear to be resulting in the emergence
of an alternative supplementary food supply chain.

The state of play within the supply chain
The continued consolidation of suppliers and retailers within the
food sector has led to the decline in the numbers of wholesalers,
abattoirs and other traditional food suppliers (Mintel 1999a). The
emerging strategies of Category Management, in which essentially
one supplier is promoted, has led to further de-listing of,
in some cases, companies of corporate status (Fyffe) (Nicholson
1998).
In Category Management a single supplier takes the lead and
thus administrative burden of organizing the supply of product
types to the retailer. They select ‘appropriate’ products from
portfolios of sister companies. In theory, the benefits of Category
Management are gained through the marriage of skills and
knowledge of major retailers and suppliers. Suppliers to the
sector have specific information on consumer consumption
trends whilst retailers provide information regarding the type
of person who shops at their stores (Anon 1997b). However, in
reality Category Management could be said (Anon 1999) to offer
the retailer the opportunity to reduce the cost burden of
managing the supply chain still further. In conjunction with
ECR, Category Management enables the retailer to pass the cost
of managing supplies and the supply base further down the
supply chain. Companies who formally supplied the retail sector
are therefore required to fit into the new role of sub-contractor,
the preferred Category Management supplier. The rise of systems
based on the criteria of price will continue to be of detriment to
the UK agricultural, horticultural, processing, wholesale and
retail sectors.
Unwillingness of suppliers to accept the terms and conditions
of uncertainty placed upon them by the category leaders, even
as a preferred Category Management supplier, could lead to a
change in the future structure of the food chain. Ultimately this
could result in the emergence of an alternative supply chain
(Younger 1998; Hughes 2000).

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In its simplest form this will be the redirecting of the businessinto new markets and the targeting of new customer groups.It is likely that wholesalers will cease supplying the multipleretail sector and focus more on the fast growing foodservicemarket (IGD 1998). This in itself is not radical; any businesstaking a strategic view would re-evaluate their customer base.Yet a change in customer base and decisions to not supply toretail multiples may result in a chain of events that will in effectchange the food supply chain and the structure of the nationalfood economy. This is particularly significant for the local andregional supply chains. Those companies who obtain preferredcategory status, otherwise known as Category Captains (Anon1997a) will be of national/international standing. Local andregional supply chains will be hardest hit by the de-listing exercise(Nicholson 1998), thus causing local suppliers to identifyalternative markets and concentrate more upon the foodservicesector.In this event there may be still a role for wholesaling withinthe supply chain. The wholesaling sector could emerge as eitheran intermediary, or in instances in which flexible delivery offresh produce to local outlets is required. This is of particularsignificance for the catering/eat out market where the nature ofthe product, the location and size of outlets means that caterersneed flexibility from their suppliers. The continued existenceand sustained growth of the wholesale market may be throughrecognizing the key opportunities presented by catering and foodservice markets.The fickle consumer and their changing desires – diametricscenariosYet it is here we are met with a paradox. Time-poor, money-richconsumers (Beard et al. 1999) have sought more efficient ways ofpurchasing, moving to weekly shopping expeditions. Theirincreased affluence has led to consumers demanding seasonal‘luxury’ food, i.e. strawberries, all the year round. These consumerdemands have at least in part contributed to the developmentof the current structure of the food sector. Whilstsupermarkets are said to have increased choice (Dawson 2000;Wroe 2000), their strategies have led to a real lack of productrange and lack of individuality of their product offer (Wroe 2000).Recent findings (Mintel 1999b) demonstrate changes inconsumer needs. The average number of shopping expeditionsper week has increased (Mintel 1999b). Consumers are lookingfor meals ready for consumption, i.e. meal solutions, home mealreplacement, and meals out of the home on the one hand, whilston the other they have become more aware of the environmentaland health implications of food provenance (Tregear et al. 1994),resulting in the growth in organic food and the popularity offarmers’ markets.Consumers are also apparently aware of the impact on localcommunities of the major multiples. SAVE, Sainsbury’s schemeof providing Sainsbury products to rural community shops, wasa response to the consumer’s attitude to the impact of supermarketson the rural commercial infrastructure.Local economies and the supply baseIn the 1980s (Cannon 1986), the development of a global supplychain was considered to be a mechanism by which food couldbe delivered more efficiently to a post-industrial society. Atthis stage little attention was paid to the impact of this strategyon regional economies. More recently, there has been considerableconcern as to the ability of the biggest retailers to ‘enternew areas and lay waste to existing retailers’ (Lang 1994). Lang’sconcern related to the inaccessibility of food for the non-carboundconsumer, others (Westlake 1993; Ellaway and Macintyre2000) talk about the increasing division between the rich andpoor and the higher price paid by consumers who have no accessto private transport. In some circles, areas that have sufferedfrom the decline in local retailers are described as food deserts(Gannaway 1999).

There is, however, a further concern. Calculations have beenmade as to the respective multiplier effect of local retailers asagainst multiple retailers (Macdonald and Swales 1991). Suchresearch clearly indicates that whilst multiples generate jobs, theactual jobs created do not offset the number of jobs lost throughthe failure of local businesses. Such failures are not isolated tothe retail sector but span a whole series of other service sectors(DETR 1998).In addition, greater levels of revenue are leaked from an areawithin a food supply structure dominated by public limitedcompanies than through their traditional counterparts (Harris1997). This is particularly evident in rural areas. It is suggestedthat the SME, including those within the food sector, have animportant role in sustainable economic growth (Marsden 1995).The alternative supply structure – a dual system or a new era?Drawing from recent consultancy work within the food sector,it is evident that many SMEs within a number of regions acrossthe UK are turning away from multiple retail supply. The recipientof their renewed attentions is the foodservice market. Thismay prove to be of great concern to the food retailer if the foodservicemarket ultimately merges with or outgrows the foodretail market – a development that is not beyond credibility givencurrent trends in the United States (IGD 2000b).Within the fresh produce sector, there are some 17 600 players(Mintel 1999a), 30% of whom are responsible for 70% of the business.The remaining players are often family owned operatorswith a low-level technological input who traditionally sourcedthe local green grocer sector. Their ability to source cateringorganizations such as the brewery and leisure chains willdepend upon their capacity to adapt operating procedures tomeet the criteria demanded of reliability, flexibility, consistencyand volume. The central purchasing departments are increasinglylooking for single suppliers, yet catering organizationoperate extensively in small local outlets. A national distributionor regional distribution centre due to the minimum order coststructures may not effectively meet single deliveries.The solution would appear to be the development of integratedpartnerships between fellow market traders both withinand across product ranges. The pulling together of resources,product ranges and market information, would facilitate theintroduction of:1. A physical distribution system matching the requirements ofthe customer base.2. An IT system which would facilitate flexible deliveries andreduce supply chain costs.3. A multi-product delivery structure.In some cases there may be a need for numerous supply tiersto the ultimate customer, resulting in a dynamic sub-contractingculture. The development of such initiatives, particularly withinthe food sector, cannot be described as widespread. In the casestudy below we can gain an insight into how this might look.Case study – Sheffield Wholesale Market food supply chain projectThis case study considers the impact of globalizationand polarization on the local freshproduce supply chain within Sheffield andits wholesale market.Sheffield Wholesale Market opened in 1961.At that time there were numerous fresh producebusinesses operating within the market.Since then the number of businesses hasdeclined continuously; in 1984 alone, 31 wentout of business (Shaw et al. 1994). There arecurrently 16 surviving businesses, althoughturnover remains at 1984 figures of £50m.Due to their concern for the future survivalof the market, the local authority commissioneda study, the purpose of which was toreview the future of the wholesale marketand decide on the most advantageous strategicoption.(To be continued.)

The need for changeThe subsequent report (PKF World-wide2297 RF Sheffield Parkway WholesaleMarket, 14 July 1997) set down the followingoptions:- Do nothing.- Develop a food industry park.- Develop alternative uses, which wouldbest fulfil the council’s objectives andmost economic use of the council’s landasset.The council’s ultimate decision was to selloff the land asset that was home to thewholesale market to a private developer,encouraging the developer to re-providethe wholesale market as part of its ownindustrial redevelopment plans. Given thisaction, there was concern for the market’scontinued existence and also concern for thefollowing issues:- Support for the traditional wholesalebusinesses and services to the localretailers within the city.- Support for the retail markets producesupply.- Support for policies relating to a ‘HealthySheffield’ and access to fresh produce bylower income social groups.- The cost of missed opportunity inproviding a leading regional food distributionpark.Beginnings of the change processAs these issues were evolving, a parallelpiece of work was taking place, examiningthe food chain and future developmentswithin the food sector, particularly thedeclining wholesale market sector. Thisindependent work, led by Stephen Allen ofOptimal Consulting combined with researchinto the relationship between wholesalersand independent caterers (Eastham 1998,1999), acted as a catalyst for the developmentof a supply chain project to bringabout change in and modernization of thepractices of the Sheffield Wholesale Marketbusinesses.An evolving projectIn the early stages a partnership was establishedbetween the private sector developerand the local authority. This was seen as thebest way of ensuring continuity of businesswithin the wholesale market and facilitatingthe redevelopment of the buildings whilstsimultaneously fulfilling the needs of thelocal retailers, retail markets and other userswithin the food supply chain.This led to the modernization programmeof the fresh produce wholesalingsector in Sheffield Wholesale Markets,which included a physical regeneration ofthe wholesale market site and a completeoverhaul of operating procedures of residentwholesalers on the basis of supply chainmanagement principles.The projectA strategy for evolving an effectiveprogramme across 42 businesses in themarket was established. This recognizedthree distinct groups:Group 1: defined as lead or primary wholesalebusinesses having direct customerand supplier relationships, good operationalmanagement and an organizationand structure – turnover at a minimumof £1 million.(To be continued.)

Group 2: defined as secondary wholesalebusinesses in the majority serving assub-contractors to the lead wholesalerand having predominantly customer andsupplier relationships within the wholesalemarket itself.Group 3: defined as secondary wholesalebusiness. Primarily involved in the functionof(a) inter-trade, i.e. selling exclusively toother businesses within the wholesalemarket or(b) speciality produce and related multiproductdelivery requirements such asdairy or bakery products.The change management modelThe change management model adopted forthis project originated as a manufacturingindustry supply chain initiative. The model,‘The Customer and Supplier RelationshipImprovement Process’ (Supply Chain ManagementGroup, Glasgow) has been adaptedand evolved into a service driven five-phaseproductive supply chain model where:Phase I deals with internal businesscommitment to the project and structuringteams to work on activities.Phase II deals with performance analysisof the businesses’ customer and supplierrelationships and determines effective futuretargets of either.Phase III deals with joint internal businesscommitment between the project businessand its chosen customers and suppliers ortargeted customers and suppliers.Phase IV deals with action orientatedassessment of joint customer and supplierrelationships and targeted improvements ina measured and planned way.Phase V deals with a continuous methodof progress review and action for activitiesand responsibilities agreed in Phase IV.The model was further adapted to meetthe specific needs of the sector and theproject activity. The headline sector-specificactivities of the model are described below.The supply chain project strategy supportedthe following activities:- Primary research: the decline of thewholesale markets and the supply chain.- Diagnostic work: review of the wholesalerbusiness position.- Mapping the supply chain – both localand regional.- Developing a ‘Business Success Model’for regeneration of the wholesale sector.- Building productive supply chain activitywithin the wholesaler business, i.e. focusingon business development style supplychains.- Building cost saving and co-operativesupply chains by recognizing and understandingcommon business functions.- Developing a ‘marketing concept’ or‘theme’ in the form of a Regional ProduceCentre or Food Supplier Park.Project group resultsThe project on the whole has provedextremely successful and could be a valuablemodel for future developments in thissector. Key improvements have included:- The adoption of technological systemssuch as tele-sales, temperature control andIT systems.- The development of delivered service tocustomers, which in certain cases involvedsharing the investment into the multitemperaturetransport.- A more focused approach to product specialismsand a greater integration betweentraders as to the overall product rangesstocked within the wholesale market.The traders have also become suppliers toa facilitating organization, which operatesas a single first tier supplier to the cateringsector, subcontracting the sourcing of freshproduce across regions to co-ordinated independenttraders. A summary of the primaryand secondary business performanceimprovements follows. The list is not exhaustive,nor indeed have all businesses achievedequally across all areas.(To be continued.)

Project results: a wider perspectiveThe change programme continues to developa competitive and sustainable food businessenvironment for the wholesale market business.It has also provided a catalyst forchange in the regional food chain and thedevelopment of supplier partnerships tofacilitate supply to the corporate foodservicesector.In reality, the project has instigatedchanges in the attitudes and developedknowledge and skills of the wholesaletraders. These changes are more difficult tomeasure in pure quantitative terms. Sheffieldwholesalers have built up a greater understandingof the strategic dimension of businessoperations within the current marketplace. They recognize:- The need to develop a parallel localand regional supply chain alongside thecentralized system instigated by themultiple retail sector.- The market potential of the catering sector.Freshness and daily delivery systems canpresent attractive options to major customergroups such as the breweries andleisure chains with extensive local outlets,as single deliveries cannot be met by centraldistribution or regional distribution,due to the minimum order cost structures.Table P11.1 Improvements at Sheffield Wholesale MarketsIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_201004250512041sdoU.gif)- The importance of developing a deliveryservice to the catering sector may facilitatetheir survival within the current foodsector.- The value of participating in joint activitieswith fellow traders to provide a broaderproduct range.- An appreciation of the value of the developmentof a subcontracting culture tofacilitate market access.- The benefits inherent in the ‘local’ supplychain (in comparison to Central orRegional Distribution centres) which hasencouraged them to promote ‘local’ deliverystructures.- That in improving the frequency of deliveriesand quality/availability of product,smaller supermarkets have beenpersuaded to return to the wholesalemarkets.Conclusion: future developmentsWithin this case study we have illustrated a change programmein the Sheffield Wholesale Market which was designed to findalternative markets for the declining wholesale sector. In essence,this is an example as to how the markets and multiple retailerscan co-exist. It is seen as a potential model of development forother wholesaler markets, particularly in the light of the gatheringmomentum for alternatives to multiple retailers led by bothconsumers and businesses alike. The project will be implementedas part of the City of Manchester regeneration programme withthe lead up to the 2001 Commonwealth Games.Perhaps the most surprising of developments has emergedfrom Italy, north of Verona. Dissemination of the success of theSheffield project has brought a request to help implement asimilar change management process in Italy, where again theregional food economies are suffering decline due to the impactof the fast growing large food retailers.This could be the start of a change process that will see thelarge retailers forced into more local sourcing, thereforepreventing the effects of globalization in the European community.Who knows, we may see one or two North Yorkshirefarmers, or apple growers in Kent, surviving!

There is, however, a further concern. Calculations have beenmade as to the respective multiplier effect of local retailers asagainst multiple retailers (Macdonald and Swales 1991). Suchresearch clearly indicates that whilst multiples generate jobs, theactual jobs created do not offset the number of jobs lost throughthe failure of local businesses. Such failures are not isolated tothe retail sector but span a whole series of other service sectors(DETR 1998).In addition, greater levels of revenue are leaked from an areawithin a food supply structure dominated by public limitedcompanies than through their traditional counterparts (Harris1997). This is particularly evident in rural areas. It is suggestedthat the SME, including those within the food sector, have animportant role in sustainable economic growth (Marsden 1995).The alternative supply structure – a dual system or a new era?Drawing from recent consultancy work within the food sector,it is evident that many SMEs within a number of regions acrossthe UK are turning away from multiple retail supply. The recipientof their renewed attentions is the foodservice market. Thismay prove to be of great concern to the food retailer if the foodservicemarket ultimately merges with or outgrows the foodretail market – a development that is not beyond credibility givencurrent trends in the United States (IGD 2000b).Within the fresh produce sector, there are some 17 600 players(Mintel 1999a), 30% of whom are responsible for 70% of the business.The remaining players are often family owned operatorswith a low-level technological input who traditionally sourcedthe local green grocer sector. Their ability to source cateringorganizations such as the brewery and leisure chains willdepend upon their capacity to adapt operating procedures tomeet the criteria demanded of reliability, flexibility, consistencyand volume. The central purchasing departments are increasinglylooking for single suppliers, yet catering organizationoperate extensively in small local outlets. A national distributionor regional distribution centre due to the minimum order coststructures may not effectively meet single deliveries.The solution would appear to be the development of integratedpartnerships between fellow market traders both withinand across product ranges. The pulling together of resources,product ranges and market information, would facilitate theintroduction of:1. A physical distribution system matching the requirements ofthe customer base.2. An IT system which would facilitate flexible deliveries andreduce supply chain costs.3. A multi-product delivery structure.In some cases there may be a need for numerous supply tiersto the ultimate customer, resulting in a dynamic sub-contractingculture. The development of such initiatives, particularly withinthe food sector, cannot be described as widespread. In the casestudy below we can gain an insight into how this might look.Case study – Sheffield Wholesale Market food supply chain projectThis case study considers the impact of globalizationand polarization on the local freshproduce supply chain within Sheffield andits wholesale market.Sheffield Wholesale Market opened in 1961.At that time there were numerous fresh producebusinesses operating within the market.Since then the number of businesses hasdeclined continuously; in 1984 alone, 31 wentout of business (Shaw et al. 1994). There arecurrently 16 surviving businesses, althoughturnover remains at 1984 figures of £50m.Due to their concern for the future survivalof the market, the local authority commissioneda study, the purpose of which was toreview the future of the wholesale marketand decide on the most advantageous strategicoption.(To be continued.)

The need for changeThe subsequent report (PKF World-wide2297 RF Sheffield Parkway WholesaleMarket, 14 July 1997) set down the followingoptions:- Do nothing.- Develop a food industry park.- Develop alternative uses, which wouldbest fulfil the council’s objectives andmost economic use of the council’s landasset.The council’s ultimate decision was to selloff the land asset that was home to thewholesale market to a private developer,encouraging the developer to re-providethe wholesale market as part of its ownindustrial redevelopment plans. Given thisaction, there was concern for the market’scontinued existence and also concern for thefollowing issues:- Support for the traditional wholesalebusinesses and services to the localretailers within the city.- Support for the retail markets producesupply.- Support for policies relating to a ‘HealthySheffield’ and access to fresh produce bylower income social groups.- The cost of missed opportunity inproviding a leading regional food distributionpark.Beginnings of the change processAs these issues were evolving, a parallelpiece of work was taking place, examiningthe food chain and future developmentswithin the food sector, particularly thedeclining wholesale market sector. Thisindependent work, led by Stephen Allen ofOptimal Consulting combined with researchinto the relationship between wholesalersand independent caterers (Eastham 1998,1999), acted as a catalyst for the developmentof a supply chain project to bringabout change in and modernization of thepractices of the Sheffield Wholesale Marketbusinesses.An evolving projectIn the early stages a partnership was establishedbetween the private sector developerand the local authority. This was seen as thebest way of ensuring continuity of businesswithin the wholesale market and facilitatingthe redevelopment of the buildings whilstsimultaneously fulfilling the needs of thelocal retailers, retail markets and other userswithin the food supply chain.This led to the modernization programmeof the fresh produce wholesalingsector in Sheffield Wholesale Markets,which included a physical regeneration ofthe wholesale market site and a completeoverhaul of operating procedures of residentwholesalers on the basis of supply chainmanagement principles.The projectA strategy for evolving an effectiveprogramme across 42 businesses in themarket was established. This recognizedthree distinct groups:Group 1: defined as lead or primary wholesalebusinesses having direct customerand supplier relationships, good operationalmanagement and an organizationand structure – turnover at a minimumof £1 million.(To be continued.)

Group 2: defined as secondary wholesalebusinesses in the majority serving assub-contractors to the lead wholesalerand having predominantly customer andsupplier relationships within the wholesalemarket itself.Group 3: defined as secondary wholesalebusiness. Primarily involved in the functionof(a) inter-trade, i.e. selling exclusively toother businesses within the wholesalemarket or(b) speciality produce and related multiproductdelivery requirements such asdairy or bakery products.The change management modelThe change management model adopted forthis project originated as a manufacturingindustry supply chain initiative. The model,‘The Customer and Supplier RelationshipImprovement Process’ (Supply Chain ManagementGroup, Glasgow) has been adaptedand evolved into a service driven five-phaseproductive supply chain model where:Phase I deals with internal businesscommitment to the project and structuringteams to work on activities.Phase II deals with performance analysisof the businesses’ customer and supplierrelationships and determines effective futuretargets of either.Phase III deals with joint internal businesscommitment between the project businessand its chosen customers and suppliers ortargeted customers and suppliers.Phase IV deals with action orientatedassessment of joint customer and supplierrelationships and targeted improvements ina measured and planned way.Phase V deals with a continuous methodof progress review and action for activitiesand responsibilities agreed in Phase IV.The model was further adapted to meetthe specific needs of the sector and theproject activity. The headline sector-specificactivities of the model are described below.The supply chain project strategy supportedthe following activities:- Primary research: the decline of thewholesale markets and the supply chain.- Diagnostic work: review of the wholesalerbusiness position.- Mapping the supply chain – both localand regional.- Developing a ‘Business Success Model’for regeneration of the wholesale sector.- Building productive supply chain activitywithin the wholesaler business, i.e. focusingon business development style supplychains.- Building cost saving and co-operativesupply chains by recognizing and understandingcommon business functions.- Developing a ‘marketing concept’ or‘theme’ in the form of a Regional ProduceCentre or Food Supplier Park.Project group resultsThe project on the whole has provedextremely successful and could be a valuablemodel for future developments in thissector. Key improvements have included:- The adoption of technological systemssuch as tele-sales, temperature control andIT systems.- The development of delivered service tocustomers, which in certain cases involvedsharing the investment into the multitemperaturetransport.- A more focused approach to product specialismsand a greater integration betweentraders as to the overall product rangesstocked within the wholesale market.The traders have also become suppliers toa facilitating organization, which operatesas a single first tier supplier to the cateringsector, subcontracting the sourcing of freshproduce across regions to co-ordinated independenttraders. A summary of the primaryand secondary business performanceimprovements follows. The list is not exhaustive,nor indeed have all businesses achievedequally across all areas.(To be continued.)

Project results: a wider perspectiveThe change programme continues to developa competitive and sustainable food businessenvironment for the wholesale market business.It has also provided a catalyst forchange in the regional food chain and thedevelopment of supplier partnerships tofacilitate supply to the corporate foodservicesector.In reality, the project has instigatedchanges in the attitudes and developedknowledge and skills of the wholesaletraders. These changes are more difficult tomeasure in pure quantitative terms. Sheffieldwholesalers have built up a greater understandingof the strategic dimension of businessoperations within the current marketplace. They recognize:- The need to develop a parallel localand regional supply chain alongside thecentralized system instigated by themultiple retail sector.- The market potential of the catering sector.Freshness and daily delivery systems canpresent attractive options to major customergroups such as the breweries andleisure chains with extensive local outlets,as single deliveries cannot be met by centraldistribution or regional distribution,due to the minimum order cost structures.Table P11.1 Improvements at Sheffield Wholesale MarketsIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_201004250512041sdoU.gif)- The importance of developing a deliveryservice to the catering sector may facilitatetheir survival within the current foodsector.- The value of participating in joint activitieswith fellow traders to provide a broaderproduct range.- An appreciation of the value of the developmentof a subcontracting culture tofacilitate market access.- The benefits inherent in the ‘local’ supplychain (in comparison to Central orRegional Distribution centres) which hasencouraged them to promote ‘local’ deliverystructures.- That in improving the frequency of deliveriesand quality/availability of product,smaller supermarkets have beenpersuaded to return to the wholesalemarkets.Conclusion: future developmentsWithin this case study we have illustrated a change programmein the Sheffield Wholesale Market which was designed to findalternative markets for the declining wholesale sector. In essence,this is an example as to how the markets and multiple retailerscan co-exist. It is seen as a potential model of development forother wholesaler markets, particularly in the light of the gatheringmomentum for alternatives to multiple retailers led by bothconsumers and businesses alike. The project will be implementedas part of the City of Manchester regeneration programme withthe lead up to the 2001 Commonwealth Games.Perhaps the most surprising of developments has emergedfrom Italy, north of Verona. Dissemination of the success of theSheffield project has brought a request to help implement asimilar change management process in Italy, where again theregional food economies are suffering decline due to the impactof the fast growing large food retailers.This could be the start of a change process that will see thelarge retailers forced into more local sourcing, thereforepreventing the effects of globalization in the European community.Who knows, we may see one or two North Yorkshirefarmers, or apple growers in Kent, surviving!

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