Mixology - Cocktail

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When the Martini began making its comeback in the
1990s it seemed that all a bartender had to do was
throw together any cocktail ingredients, serve them in a
Martini glass, and call it a new" Martini. Purists might
wince, but the use of sleek, stylish glasses helped elevate
overall drink presentation to an art form, and experimentation has
stimulated and improved many bar businesses. As you’ll see in this
article it is especially important to know how to make a classic Martini,
as well as how to adapt it to your customers’ tastes and special
requests, and to your own whims as a bartender interested in creating
trends instead of simply following them.
To continue our discussion of mixology this article presents the remaining
methods of mixing drinks, including the original method of
shaking by hand and the current methods of blending and mechanical
mixing that make frozen drinks and ice-cream-based drinks possible.
The article also explores additional drink families, as well as current
methods and techniques for preparing and filling drink orders quickly
and properly. Finally you will learn how the bar manager can use all
of this knowledge to plan drink menus and create signature drinks
that will increase profits and build a reputation for quality, creativity,
and professionalism.

* Explain and demonstrate the stir, shake-by-hand, blend, and shakemix
methods of drink mixing.
* Explain and demonstrate how to make frozen and ice-cream-based
drinks.
* Understand how to prepare cocktails from these families: sour, Collins
(from scratch), sling, fizz, tropical, and cream drinks.
* Take drink orders accurately, fill them efficiently, and train others
to do so.
* Develop a suitable drink menu for a limited-menu bar.
* Create signature (specialty) drinks.

Picking up the historical note on which we ended the last article,
we find that Jerry Thomas of Blue Blazer fame was also a key figure
in developing the art of mixology in general. When he wrote his
first drink-making manual in 1862 the word cocktail referred to
composite beverages" that were generally bottled to take on picnics
or hunting trips. As the world’s most prestigious bartender of the
day, Thomas’s zeal and expertise turned the cocktail into a fashionable and desirable
bar drink. His moniker, the Professor," was bestowed out of respect for his dedicated
research and experiments in mixology. Today people who know their beverages
have much the same regard for such mixologists as Dale DeGroff and Tony
Abou-Ganim, individuals who preserve time-honored bartending traditions while
adding new drink recipes that surely will become classics.

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More on creating signature drinks later. First, let’s continue the discussion ofdrinks that are not built in the glass but are stirred, shaken, blended, or mechanicallymixed with the shake machine. These drinks can also be grouped into families,with common ingredients and mixing methods as the family ties. It isimportant to be familiar with these drinks because they are making a big comebackamong younger people, who may have only read about the glamour of the 1950snightclub scene or seen it in the movies, but who are developing a taste for venerable"cocktails, including the Martini and the Manhattan.THE MARTINI/MANHATTAN FAMILYIt is hard to decide whether to call this group of drinks one family or two. Althoughtoday’s Martinis and Manhattans are distinctly different from one another, in theirsecond-generation variations and refinements lines cross and distinctions blur. Unlikethat of the Martini, however, the lineage of the Manhattan is not in dispute: Itwas introduced at New York City’s Manhattan Club by Winston Churchill’s mother.The basic characteristics of both branches of this drink family are very muchthe same—with some important caveats that follow:Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Liquor, vermouth (in a 4:1 to 8:1 ratio), and garnish* Glass. Stemmed cocktail, chilled* Mixing method. StirAs to differences in a classic Martini the liquor is gin, the vermouth is dry, andthe garnish is an olive or a lemon twist. In a classic Manhattan the liquor is whiskey,the vermouth is sweet, and the garnish is a cherry. The mixing method describedin Figure 11.1 is for a straight-up drink, that is, one served in a chilled, stemmedcocktail glass with no ice in the drink itself. Today Martinis and Manhattans andall of their relatives are served more often on the rocks than they are straight up.A more recent trend (and one that we believe is here to stay)
is that young guests, those under age 35, cringe at the thought
of putting vermouth in a Martini. They prefer sweeter drinks with
the taste of alcohol softened by mixers or flavors. So unless otherwise
specified many professionals now make the Martini without
vermouth. Sensible or scandalous? You decide. Another major
trend: The Martini used to always be made with gin unless the
customer requested another liquor but a marketing push by
vodka producers has changed that, too. In 2002 sales of superpremium
vodkas rose 10 percent. The Vodka Martini has arrived,
and it is just as popular as its classic, gin-based cousin.
________________________________________
MARTINI
Chilled 4-oz cocktail glass
6 parts gin
1 part dry (French) vermouth
Olive or lemon twist

MANHATTAN
Chilled 4-oz cocktail glass
6 parts whiskey
1 part sweet (Italian) vermouth
Maraschino cherry
________________________________________

FIGURE 11.1 THE STIR METHOD: HOW TO MAKE A MARTINI OR MANHATTANIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746075NtxH.gif)

There are several things to consider carefully in the mixing of Martinis andManhattans. The first is a chilled glass. The cold glass is absolutely essential to thequality of the drink since there is no ice in the drink itself. Handle the chilled glassby the stem so that the heat of your fingers does not warm it or leave fingerprintson the frosty bowl. If you do not have a chilled glass to start with you must chillone. You do this by filling it with ice before you begin step 1. (Purists insist thatprerefrigerating glasses simply does not have the same effect as the use of ice.) Thecocktail glass chills while you are completing steps 2 through 4. Then you pick upthe glass by the stem, empty the ice into your waste dump, and proceed withstep 5.The purpose of the stirring in step 4 is twofold: to mix thevermouth and liquor without producing a cloudy drink, and tochill them quickly without unduly diluting the mixture. If youvigorously stir or shake a drink containing vermouth it will lookcloudy. If you stir too long melting ice will weaken the drink’sflavor. (Dale DeGroff suggests 30 stirs with small cube ice, and50 stirs with large cubes.) Stir just long enough to blend and chillthese two easily combined ingredients and to add about an ounceof water—no more. Note that ice" means cube ice; crushed icewould dilute the drink too quickly.In step 5 you use the strainer to keep the ice out of the glass. In the parent"drink recipe you will see a 6*1 ratio for both drinks. In terms of amounts it iscommonly 11/4 ounces of liquor and 1/4 ounce of vermouth. Allowing for a smallamount of melted ice and the space taken up by the garnish, you will need a 4-to 41/2-ounce glass.A 6*1 drink is fairly dry. The accepted standard used to be 4*1, but today’strend has been toward drier drinks. If a customer asks for a dry Martini you candecrease the vermouth in the recipe or increase the liquor, depending on housepolicy. For a very dry Martini, use only a dash of vermouth or none at all. Bartendersdevelop their own forms of showmanship about this: They may use an eyedropperor atomizer, or pass the glass over the vermouth bottle with great flourish—or facein the general direction of France and salute!If you use equal parts of dry and sweet vermouth in either a Martini or aManhattan it becomes a Perfect Martini or a Perfect Manhattan, respectively. Thegarnish usually becomes a lemon twist in each case. If you change the olive to acocktail onion in the original Martini, you have made a Gibson.There is also the Rum Martini, which will become the El Presidente if you adda dash of bitters or a little lime juice and sweeten the drink with grenadine andCuracao. There’s a Tequila Martini, or Tequini; if this is made with Sauza Goldtequila, you might call it a Cold Gold. There is another variation, the Silver Bullet,which is made with gin but either substitutes Scotch for the vermouth or uses bothScotch and vermouth, floating the scotch.Alternate modifiers to replace vermouth include dry sherry, Cognac, Lillet, Dubonnetwith a dash of angostura bitters, Port, Madeira, and even sake. A DirtyMartini includes a splash of green olive juice. And don’t neglect the garnish. Formembers of the Martini/Manhattan family, the garnish should be sophisticated andattractive. As discussed earlier these include olives stuffed with bleu cheese orprosciutto, or wrapped with anchovies; fresh strawberries; pickled green tomatoes;chunks of lobster meat; and peeled, cooked shrimp.Clearly there are dozens of Martini variations. Each one substitutes ingredients,varies proportions, or adds flavor accents to the original recipe. You should befamiliar with any that may be regional favorites in your area. Read on for moreideas.

Close-Up: THE MARTINIThe city of Martinez, California, hosts an annual Martini Festival to celebrate itsheritage as the "birthplace of the Martini." Jerry Thomas ("the Professor") is said tohave worked his magic and created it there. Of course there are other equallycolorful claims. The British say that the Martini is their invention, named after theMartini & Henry, a renowned rifle known for its accuracy and its "kick." TheItalians take issue with both of these stories. Italian vermouth maker Martini &Rossi says the drink was so named because it was first made with Martini & Rossibrand vermouth—and plenty of it. The controversy about whether this cocktailwas named for a town, a gun, or a vintner will never be settled. This does notreally matter for it has long been dwarfed by another controversy that has beenbrewing since there were Martinis: "How should a Martini truly be made?"From the moment in the early 1800s when gin and vermouth were first blendedthe Martini has been a very special drink. The Martini prompted many Americansto sample a mixed drink instead of drinking whiskey straight. Many women enjoyedthe Martini when social drinking standards relaxed in social and business circlesthat were previously for men only."In the White House President Franklin Roosevelt enjoyed his Martinis (4 partsgin, 1 part vermouth) nightly before dinner. President John F. Kennedy, while stilla U.S. senator, singled out the Martini as a symbol of wealth or special privilege;he created the phrase Martini lunch to disparage business-related dining, especiallyat taxpayers’ expense. Later President Jimmy Carter made headlines by proposingtax reform that would end the three-Martini-lunch" wheeling and dealing of membersof Congress and bureaucrats. But the cocktail’s popularity did not wane.By 1979 The Perfect Martini Book by Robert Herzbrum (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich,1979) listed the ingredients for 286 different variations. Today the M Bar inMiami, Florida’s Mandarin Oriental Hotel features a menu of 250 Martinis in sixbroad categories: sweet, fruity, tangy, after-dinner, naughty-but-nice, and oddball.In short the Martini has become the mutant of the bartending world: It is continuallyredefined, reconstructed, and repositioned.Fruit Martinis got a popularity boost in the late 1990s when the stars of thetelevision show Sex and the City, a well-heeled group of 20-something girlfriends,were frequently shown sipping Apple Martinis in (where else?) the Big Apple. Thebasic drink recipe includes muddled or pureed apples, Calvados, vodka, and applecider. Another version of the recipe is more specific: Granny Smith apples, De-Kuyper Sour Apple Pucker liqueur, Ketel One vodka, and ice, garnished with aslice of green apple. You can muddle the apples with a bit of bourbon or rye, addapple schnapps, infuse the vodka with apples, use sparkling cider instead of still,and so on.As Martini variations increase it is perhaps ironic that the sizes of the individualdrinks are decreasing. The traditional 31/2-to-4-ounce drink served in a 5-ouncecocktail glass has returned to favor. The 1990s saw supersized Martinis served in10-ounce glassware and, while these are still available in some bars, the smallersize better fits our mode of responsible alcohol consumption. Besides as DaleDeGroff so aptly puts it, "Cocktails were designed to stimulate the appetite, notknock someone out." New York City’s Four Seasons restaurant features so-called"Weenie Martinis" in miniature sizes that can be ordered in combinations and pairedwith foods.

A Few Words about ManhattansAs the popularity of bourbon has surged there has been an equivalent renewal ofinterest in the Mahattan, the classic whiskey cocktail. The drink is smooth, aromatic,and satisfying. Unlike the classic Martini, which many agree is an acquiredtaste, the Manhattan possesses an almost universal appeal, the sophistication of theMartini without the snobbery.Like any other traditional drink, the Manhattan has many variations, includingthe following:* Dry Manhattan: Substitute dry vermouth for sweet vermouth, and a lemontwist for the maraschino cherry* Perfect Manhattan: Use half dry vermouth and half sweet vermouth, and garnishwith a lemon twist* Sweet Manhattan: Add a dash of maraschino-cherry juice to the classic recipe.* Rob Roy: Use Scotch whiskey, sweet vermouth, and a dash of bitters* Latin Manhattan or Little Princess: Use rum instead of whiskey* Quebec Manhattan: Use Canadian whiskey instead of bourbon* Raspberry Manhattan: Add a splash of Chambord.* Italian Manhattan: Add a splash of amaretto.* Spanish Manhattan: Add a splash of sherry.* Paddy: Made with Irish whiskeyThe names change with the ingredients. For example, when you use rum, thedrink is traditionally called a Little Princess, but if you use equal parts rum andsweet vermouth, you will make a Poker. If you make a Manhattan with SouthernComfort as the whiskey, use dry vermouth to cut the sweetness of the liquor.All versions of both the Martini and the Manhattan are made in the same way:stirred in a mixing glass, then strained into a chilled cocktail glass. Straight-upcocktails made with other fortified wines, such as sherry or Dubonnet, are madethe same way.As noted earlier all of these drinks may also be served on the rocks. In this caseyou have a choice of mixing methods. You can make a drink as you do the straightupcocktail by simply straining the contents of the mixing glass into a rocks glassthree-quarters full of cube ice. Or you can build the drink in the rocks glass asyou do the two-liquor drinks on ice. The latter method (which was described inlast article) is the easiest, the fastest, and by far the most common. If you buildin the glass, it is wise to pour the vermouth first. Then, if the mingling of theingredients is less than perfect, the customer will taste the liquor first.If volume warrants Martinis and Manhattans can be premixed in quantity. Justfollow these steps:1. Fill a large, slender-necked funnel with cube ice and put it into the neck of aquart container.2. Pour 4 ounces of the appropriate vermouth and a 750-millileter bottle of theappropriate liquor over the cube ice in the quart container.3. Stir with a long-handled barspoon.4. Keep chilled in the refrigerator until used.5. To serve measure out 31/2 ounces per drink into a chilled cocktail glass.

FUN WITH FLAVORS: THE NEW MARTINISThe trade press continually highlightsthe best, brightest, and/oroddest "new" Martini recipes. Thefollowing are just a few:* Salmon Martini: At the Cad’Zan Bar in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Sarasota,Florida, the inside of a Martini glass islined with a thinly sliced filet of smokedsalmon. Fries Vodka is used, and a teaspoonof farm-raised sturgeon caviar is floated as thegarnish. This specialty drink costs $12.* Tablatini: At Tabla, an East Indian fusion restaurantin New York City, the Martini is achilled fruit soup with vodka, made withpineapple juice, Absolut Citron vodka, limejuice, and a lemongrass-stalk garnish. Thekitchen preps the secondary ingredients.* The Vesper: Pravda, a New York City restaurant,uses both gin and vodka in its bestsellingMartini. Proportions are 3 parts gin, 1part vodka, 1/4 part Lillet; the garnish is alemon twist.* Godiva Diva Martini: At the Cool River Cafe′in Irving, Texas, this dessert-like recipe mixesSmirnoff Vanilla Twist Vodka with GodivaChocolate Liqueur and Amaretto.A splash of liqueur will add a blast of flavorand an attractive color to the Martini. Liqueurrecommendations include Frangelica, Godiva,Curacao, Chambord, Grand Marnier, Amaretto,B&B, and black Sambuca. The use of infusedliquors can produce delicious results, fromlemon-flavored gin, to chili-pepper-flavored tequila.There are also cherry-infused rums andpineapple-infused vodkas. Remember, the betterthe liquor, the better the Martini. Today’s customerappreciates the top-quality, superpremiumbrands and will pay more for them.You might also try presenting your guestswith chilled cocktail glasses and a tray of all ofthe condiments and ingredients to build theirown "perfect" Martini. Premeasure the liquor, ofcourse, in a small carafe nestled into a bowl ofice; put vermouth and other modifiers in othercarafes.

Close-Up: THE COSMOPOLITANThe other Sex and the City cocktail of choice is the Cosmopolitan, the rosy, refreshingKool-Aid of young urbanites. Keep in mind that the Cosmopolitan is not, norhas it ever been, a variation of the Martini. The Cosmopolitan is a member of thesour family and a relative of the Gimlet, a British derivative that had its roots incolonial India. Like classic Martinis, the classic Gimlet used to beprepared with gin, but now vodka is also used. Rose’s Lime Juiceis the modifier.A brief look at the family tree: The Gimlet was first adaptedinto the Kamikaze, which is a Gimlet with a shot of Cointreau,in the 1970s. Then the Kamikaze morphed into the Cosmopolitanby keeping the Rose’s Lime Juice and Cointreau, switching tocitrus-infused vodka and adding cranberry juice.The proliferation of lemon, orange, and other fruit-infusedvodkas makes experimentation fun and profitable. For examplethe Metropolitan is made with Absolut Kurant instead of AbsolutCitron. The Purple Cosmo is made with Stolichnaya Limonaya,Blue Curacao, and Chambord.__________________________________________THE COSMOPOLITANSTIR OR SHAKEStemmed cocktail glass (6–8 ounces) orrocks glass, well chilled11/2 ounces Absolut Citron1/2 ounce Cointreau1/2 ounce fresh lime juice or Rose’s LimeJuice11/2 ounces cranberry juiceLime twist or orange twist__________________________________________SOURS AND SWEET-ANDSOURCOCKTAILSThe idea of combining sweet-and-sour flavors with liquors has been around along time. It is no accident that several of the drinks in the sweet-and-sour cocktail family originated in tropical climates, where lemons and limes grow in profusion.Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Liquor, lemon or lime juice, and a sweetener ("sweet, sour, andstrong")* Glass. Sour or cocktail, chilled* Mixing method. Shake (or blend, or shake-mix)The subgroup of drinks known as sours use lemon rather than lime, have astandard garnish of cherry and orange, and are traditionally served in a sour glassof about 41/2 ounces, whatever size and shape accommodates the garnish attractively.Sometimes a sour is made with egg white or a mix containing frothee, givingthe drink an appetizing fizz topping. The other cocktails in this family, such as theDaiquiri or the Gimlet, are served in a standard cocktail glass of 4 to 41/2 ounces.Some use lime instead of lemon; some use a sweet liqueur or syrup in place ofsugar. Most have no standard garnish. Any of these drinks may also be served overice in a rocks glass if so specified. Some of them are also made in a frozen versionor a fruit version.

Mixing SoursThe contents of these drinks, citrus juices and sugar, demand that they be shaken,blended, or mechanically mixed, whether you make them from scratch or use asweet-and-sour mix. Neither the sugar nor the fruit juices can be smoothly combinedwith the liquor by stirring, and shaking adds air that lightens the drink andmakes it a bit frothy.The Shake Method. The cocktail shaker was a symbol of the joyous return to legaldrinking after Prohibition. The shaking of a drink was a ceremony of skill thatwhetted the customer’s appetite and simultaneously commanded admiration. Whenmechanical mixers were invented people quickly discovered that they made asmooth drink a great deal faster than with the hand shaker. Today most bars useshake mixers and blenders, and those that use hand shakers do so for reasons oftradition or showmanship. Ironically some bartenders do not even know how toshake a drink by hand. Figure 11.2 shows the making of a sour using a handshaker. You will notice that the first three steps are essentially the same as those ofthe stir method. Since step 4 is the heart of the matter let’s look at this techniquemore closely.FIGURE 11.2 THE SHAKE METHOD: HOW TO MAKE A SOUR IN A HAND SHAKERIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_2009102207460771w6M.jpg)

The cup of the shaker fits tightly over the glass because a certain amount of flexin the metal makes for a good fit. The cap should be put on at an angle with oneof its sides running along the side of the glass. This makes it easier to separate thecup and glass again. (Sometimes shaking creates a vacuum, and the cup adheresto the glass.) Shake vigorously, using long strokes that send the contents from oneend to the other. Some people shake up and down; others shake back and forthover the shoulder.If you have trouble separating the glass from the cup do not yield to the temptationof banging the cup on the rail. You can easily break the glass this way. Youmight also dent the cup. Instead hit the cup with the heel of your hand halfwaybetween the point where the cup touches the glass and the point where it is farthestaway from the glass.Washing, step 7, is necessary because sugar and fruit juices might cling to thesides of the containers after shaking.The Shake-Mix Method. If you use a shake mixer to "shake" your cocktail, substitutethe mixer can for the mixing glass and proceed as shown in Figure 11.3.As you can see the procedures are very similar, but there are some noteworthydifferences. Notice that in step 2, you use only one-fourth can of ice. This is becausethe mixer can is bigger than the mixing glass. You need only enough ice to chillthe drink. In step 4 you substitute the mixer can for the hand shaker. To estimate10 seconds count "one-hundred-one, one-hundred-two," and so on up to "onehundred-ten."THE SHAKE-MIX METHOD: HOW TO MAKE A SOUR IN A SHAKE MIXERIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746078xSB3.jpg)

One national chain of Mexican restaurants cut its inventory to 35 liquors, 9mixes, plus 4 wines, and 4 beers after conducting careful market research andplanning. This is about one-third of the average unlimited bar. The chain’s fullcolorprinted menu offers 20 mixed drinks: frozen drinks, cocktails, and Slings,some new, some old. The lineup might seem unsophisticated, but it satisfies thetastes of the chain’s youngish, blue-collar clientele. All the drinks are made fromthe same few base liquors, liqueurs, and made-to-order bottled mixes. This makesit possible to hire employees who have little or no previous bartending experience,train them thoroughly to mix each drink on the menu, and serve customers thesame drink in Denver as in Tallahassee at an attractive price.SUMMING UPMany interesting and historical tidbits are associated with the development of theworld’s most popular drinks—including Manhattans, Martinis, and Cuba Libres—and these have made impressive comebacks in bars today. The younger generationenjoys the lore and drama, if you will, of bygone times and nightclubs that movieshave painted as chic and glamorous.If the drinks are not good, though, customers won’t return. Behind the scenesthe systematic development of drinks and a drink menu provides you with performancestandards and products of consistent quality, and makes training easierfor bartenders and cocktail servers. Standardization also facilitates accurately pricingdrinks, controlling costs, and cutting losses, all of which enhance the profit picture.(These factors are discussed in upcoming articles.)In this article you learned about making from scratch the members of a numberof drink families: Martinis, Manhattans, Sours, and Collinses, as well as shooters,tropical drinks, dairy and ice-cream drinks, and frozen drinks. The latter can beincredibly profitable, but only with the right equipment and staff training. We spentadditional time on some of the most popular individual drinks, including the Martini,the Cosmopolitan, and the Margarita.Most bars have a common form of shorthand (abbreviations used to write orders)and a system to "call" the drinks (place the order) at the bar. Planning a drinkmenu makes it much easier to order liquor, with fewer overhead costs and lessstorage space required. In short not every bar has to be able to make every drink.However, a thorough knowledge of drinks opens the door to fun and invention foryou, your bartenders, and your servers. A few unique specialty drinks to complementyour food menu are excellent merchandising devices.

More on creating signature drinks later. First, let’s continue the discussion ofdrinks that are not built in the glass but are stirred, shaken, blended, or mechanicallymixed with the shake machine. These drinks can also be grouped into families,with common ingredients and mixing methods as the family ties. It isimportant to be familiar with these drinks because they are making a big comebackamong younger people, who may have only read about the glamour of the 1950snightclub scene or seen it in the movies, but who are developing a taste for venerable"cocktails, including the Martini and the Manhattan.THE MARTINI/MANHATTAN FAMILYIt is hard to decide whether to call this group of drinks one family or two. Althoughtoday’s Martinis and Manhattans are distinctly different from one another, in theirsecond-generation variations and refinements lines cross and distinctions blur. Unlikethat of the Martini, however, the lineage of the Manhattan is not in dispute: Itwas introduced at New York City’s Manhattan Club by Winston Churchill’s mother.The basic characteristics of both branches of this drink family are very muchthe same—with some important caveats that follow:Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Liquor, vermouth (in a 4:1 to 8:1 ratio), and garnish* Glass. Stemmed cocktail, chilled* Mixing method. StirAs to differences in a classic Martini the liquor is gin, the vermouth is dry, andthe garnish is an olive or a lemon twist. In a classic Manhattan the liquor is whiskey,the vermouth is sweet, and the garnish is a cherry. The mixing method describedin Figure 11.1 is for a straight-up drink, that is, one served in a chilled, stemmedcocktail glass with no ice in the drink itself. Today Martinis and Manhattans andall of their relatives are served more often on the rocks than they are straight up.A more recent trend (and one that we believe is here to stay)
is that young guests, those under age 35, cringe at the thought
of putting vermouth in a Martini. They prefer sweeter drinks with
the taste of alcohol softened by mixers or flavors. So unless otherwise
specified many professionals now make the Martini without
vermouth. Sensible or scandalous? You decide. Another major
trend: The Martini used to always be made with gin unless the
customer requested another liquor but a marketing push by
vodka producers has changed that, too. In 2002 sales of superpremium
vodkas rose 10 percent. The Vodka Martini has arrived,
and it is just as popular as its classic, gin-based cousin.
________________________________________
MARTINI
Chilled 4-oz cocktail glass
6 parts gin
1 part dry (French) vermouth
Olive or lemon twist

MANHATTAN
Chilled 4-oz cocktail glass
6 parts whiskey
1 part sweet (Italian) vermouth
Maraschino cherry
________________________________________

FIGURE 11.1 THE STIR METHOD: HOW TO MAKE A MARTINI OR MANHATTANIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746075NtxH.gif)

The Blend Method. To make the same drink using a blender substitute the blendercup for the shaker glass or mixer can. The mixing method is like that for the shakemixer, as you can see in Figure 11.4. Set the blender speed on high, but do notblend longer than the specified time. You do not want to incorporate bits of iceinto the drink; you only want the ice to chill it. Blending too long will turn thedrink into frozen slush.FIGURE 11.4 THE BLEND METHOD: HOW TO MAKE A SOUR IN A BLENDERIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746076nUEi.gif)

There are several things to consider carefully in the mixing of Martinis andManhattans. The first is a chilled glass. The cold glass is absolutely essential to thequality of the drink since there is no ice in the drink itself. Handle the chilled glassby the stem so that the heat of your fingers does not warm it or leave fingerprintson the frosty bowl. If you do not have a chilled glass to start with you must chillone. You do this by filling it with ice before you begin step 1. (Purists insist thatprerefrigerating glasses simply does not have the same effect as the use of ice.) Thecocktail glass chills while you are completing steps 2 through 4. Then you pick upthe glass by the stem, empty the ice into your waste dump, and proceed withstep 5.The purpose of the stirring in step 4 is twofold: to mix thevermouth and liquor without producing a cloudy drink, and tochill them quickly without unduly diluting the mixture. If youvigorously stir or shake a drink containing vermouth it will lookcloudy. If you stir too long melting ice will weaken the drink’sflavor. (Dale DeGroff suggests 30 stirs with small cube ice, and50 stirs with large cubes.) Stir just long enough to blend and chillthese two easily combined ingredients and to add about an ounceof water—no more. Note that ice" means cube ice; crushed icewould dilute the drink too quickly.In step 5 you use the strainer to keep the ice out of the glass. In the parent"drink recipe you will see a 6*1 ratio for both drinks. In terms of amounts it iscommonly 11/4 ounces of liquor and 1/4 ounce of vermouth. Allowing for a smallamount of melted ice and the space taken up by the garnish, you will need a 4-to 41/2-ounce glass.A 6*1 drink is fairly dry. The accepted standard used to be 4*1, but today’strend has been toward drier drinks. If a customer asks for a dry Martini you candecrease the vermouth in the recipe or increase the liquor, depending on housepolicy. For a very dry Martini, use only a dash of vermouth or none at all. Bartendersdevelop their own forms of showmanship about this: They may use an eyedropperor atomizer, or pass the glass over the vermouth bottle with great flourish—or facein the general direction of France and salute!If you use equal parts of dry and sweet vermouth in either a Martini or aManhattan it becomes a Perfect Martini or a Perfect Manhattan, respectively. Thegarnish usually becomes a lemon twist in each case. If you change the olive to acocktail onion in the original Martini, you have made a Gibson.There is also the Rum Martini, which will become the El Presidente if you adda dash of bitters or a little lime juice and sweeten the drink with grenadine andCuracao. There’s a Tequila Martini, or Tequini; if this is made with Sauza Goldtequila, you might call it a Cold Gold. There is another variation, the Silver Bullet,which is made with gin but either substitutes Scotch for the vermouth or uses bothScotch and vermouth, floating the scotch.Alternate modifiers to replace vermouth include dry sherry, Cognac, Lillet, Dubonnetwith a dash of angostura bitters, Port, Madeira, and even sake. A DirtyMartini includes a splash of green olive juice. And don’t neglect the garnish. Formembers of the Martini/Manhattan family, the garnish should be sophisticated andattractive. As discussed earlier these include olives stuffed with bleu cheese orprosciutto, or wrapped with anchovies; fresh strawberries; pickled green tomatoes;chunks of lobster meat; and peeled, cooked shrimp.Clearly there are dozens of Martini variations. Each one substitutes ingredients,varies proportions, or adds flavor accents to the original recipe. You should befamiliar with any that may be regional favorites in your area. Read on for moreideas.

A Whiskey Sour is usually made with bourbon or a blended whiskey. A Sourcan be made with any other liquor, such as gin, brandy, Scotch, rum, tequila, andvodka. For speed production you can substitute a jigger of sweet-and-sour mix forthe lemon juice and sugar—but at a considerable sacrifice in quality. In the otherdirection a special touch would be to add a teaspoon of egg white before blendingthe ingredients.The Daiquiri dates back to the Spanish-American War and was named for theDaiquiri iron mines in Cuba. According to the story one of the mine’s chief engineers,an American, developed the cooling, thirst-quenching drink using rum fromthe nearby Bacardi rum plant in lieu of drinking the malaria-tainted local water.The Daiquiri is the prototype for a number of other drinks made with differentspirits. Most similar is the Bacardi; this is essentially a Daiquiri made with Bacardirum, with a dash of grenadine replacing half the sugar. When you change the liquoror substitute a liqueur or a syrup for the sugar, you will find the following familymembers—some familiar, some passe′ but still occasionally called for:* Ward 8: A Bourbon Sour with grenadine added* Side Car: Brandy or cognac, lemon juice, and Cointreau, with a sugared rim.(This drink was invented by a World War I captain who rode to his favoriteParis bistro on a motorcycle with a sidecar.)* Between the Sheets: Half brandy and half rum, lemon or lime juice, and TripleSec. This is a variation of the Side Car.* Jack Rose: Apple brandy, lemon or lime juice, and grenadine* Clover Club: Gin, lemon or lime juice, grenadine, and egg white* Tequila Rose: Tequila, lime juice, and grenadine* Pink Lady (yesterday’s version): Gin, apple brandy, lemon or lime juice, grenadine,and egg white. (The modern Pink Lady adds cream and often omits thejuice and the brandy.)* Gimlet: Gin, and Rose’s Lime Juice (sweet) or fresh lime juice and sugar. (If youuse Rose’s Lime Juice, as nearly everyone does, you can stir it instead of blendingor shaking.)* Scarlett O’Hara: Southern Comfort, cranberry juice, and lime juice. In thisdry version, the liqueur provides the sweetness. (A sweeter version is madewith Southern Comfort, grenadine, and lime juice—a completely differentdrink, undoubtedly invented by a bartender who had no cranberry juice onhand.)___________________________________WHISKEY SOURSHAKE, SHAKE-MIX, OR BLEND41/2-oz sour glass, chilled1 jigger whiskeyJuice from 1/2 lemon1 tsp sugar or 1/2 oz simple syrupLemon or orange slice, cherry___________________________________You can make other very popular versions of the Daiquiri byadding fresh fruit. For example you can blend in half a crushedbanana for a Banana Daiquiri, garnishing it with a banana slice.Blend in crushed fresh or frozen strawberries for a StrawberryDaiquiri, using a whole fresh strawberry as a garnish. Fruit Daiquirisare often made as frozen drinks. You can serve any Souron the rocks in a rocks glass. Shake, blend, or shake-mix theSour the same way that you make a straight-up sour, then pourit over ice in a rocks glass.

Close-Up: THE MARTINIThe city of Martinez, California, hosts an annual Martini Festival to celebrate itsheritage as the "birthplace of the Martini." Jerry Thomas ("the Professor") is said tohave worked his magic and created it there. Of course there are other equallycolorful claims. The British say that the Martini is their invention, named after theMartini & Henry, a renowned rifle known for its accuracy and its "kick." TheItalians take issue with both of these stories. Italian vermouth maker Martini &Rossi says the drink was so named because it was first made with Martini & Rossibrand vermouth—and plenty of it. The controversy about whether this cocktailwas named for a town, a gun, or a vintner will never be settled. This does notreally matter for it has long been dwarfed by another controversy that has beenbrewing since there were Martinis: "How should a Martini truly be made?"From the moment in the early 1800s when gin and vermouth were first blendedthe Martini has been a very special drink. The Martini prompted many Americansto sample a mixed drink instead of drinking whiskey straight. Many women enjoyedthe Martini when social drinking standards relaxed in social and business circlesthat were previously for men only."In the White House President Franklin Roosevelt enjoyed his Martinis (4 partsgin, 1 part vermouth) nightly before dinner. President John F. Kennedy, while stilla U.S. senator, singled out the Martini as a symbol of wealth or special privilege;he created the phrase Martini lunch to disparage business-related dining, especiallyat taxpayers’ expense. Later President Jimmy Carter made headlines by proposingtax reform that would end the three-Martini-lunch" wheeling and dealing of membersof Congress and bureaucrats. But the cocktail’s popularity did not wane.By 1979 The Perfect Martini Book by Robert Herzbrum (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich,1979) listed the ingredients for 286 different variations. Today the M Bar inMiami, Florida’s Mandarin Oriental Hotel features a menu of 250 Martinis in sixbroad categories: sweet, fruity, tangy, after-dinner, naughty-but-nice, and oddball.In short the Martini has become the mutant of the bartending world: It is continuallyredefined, reconstructed, and repositioned.Fruit Martinis got a popularity boost in the late 1990s when the stars of thetelevision show Sex and the City, a well-heeled group of 20-something girlfriends,were frequently shown sipping Apple Martinis in (where else?) the Big Apple. Thebasic drink recipe includes muddled or pureed apples, Calvados, vodka, and applecider. Another version of the recipe is more specific: Granny Smith apples, De-Kuyper Sour Apple Pucker liqueur, Ketel One vodka, and ice, garnished with aslice of green apple. You can muddle the apples with a bit of bourbon or rye, addapple schnapps, infuse the vodka with apples, use sparkling cider instead of still,and so on.As Martini variations increase it is perhaps ironic that the sizes of the individualdrinks are decreasing. The traditional 31/2-to-4-ounce drink served in a 5-ouncecocktail glass has returned to favor. The 1990s saw supersized Martinis served in10-ounce glassware and, while these are still available in some bars, the smallersize better fits our mode of responsible alcohol consumption. Besides as DaleDeGroff so aptly puts it, "Cocktails were designed to stimulate the appetite, notknock someone out." New York City’s Four Seasons restaurant features so-called"Weenie Martinis" in miniature sizes that can be ordered in combinations and pairedwith foods.

Close-Up: THE MARGARITAOne of the most popular drinks of the sour family is the Margarita. In fact itcontinues to be the most-requested cocktail in America. An exceptionally versatileoffering, it can be classified as a shake- or blend-method drink and there are endlessvariations on its three simple ingredients: tequila, a flavorful liqueur, and citrusjuice. Fruits—whatever is fresh and local: peaches, berries, melon, mango, pineapple,and even prickly pear cactus—are commonly used to add flavor and color.The liqueurs range from Triple Sec to Cointreau, and Grand Marnier to Chambord.You can use either fresh lime or Rose’s Lime Juice, depending on desired sweetness,or a nicely balanced base mix of both lemon and lime juices. Some bartenders adda tablespoon of simple syrup to the mix. You can also consider using more thanone type of tequila in a single drink, such as half lively silver, and half mellowanejo.Servers should also ask an all-important question when takingdrink orders: "Frozen or on the rocks?" Many people think ofMargaritas as adult snow cones; others insist that ice dilutes thedrink and want it served with just a bit of ice. Customers alsohave strong preferences for rimming the Margarita glass; the traditionis salt, with a nod to "Los Tres Amigos" (the three friends):tequila, lime, and salt. But many folks don’t like to sip a sweetishdrink through salt and prefer an unrimmed glass. The Margarita’srefreshing nature makes it a popular summer drink, but you’llsell them year-round. Frozen Margaritas offer the additional optionof making two flavors in two different colors and layeringthem in a single glass. The casual Lone Star Steak House chain charges $6 for athree-layered frozen Margarita called Stars & Stripes, which is made with BlueCuracao on the bottom, Jose Cuervo Gold in the middle, and strawberry puree ontop.The watermelon and lemongrass margarita recipes are a couple of imaginativevariations on this catchall tequila-based cocktail.__________________________________________DAIQUIRISHAKE, SHAKE-MIX, OR BLEND41/2-oz cocktail glass, chilled1 jigger light rum1 jigger lime juice1 tsp sugar or 1/2 oz simple syrupWATERMELON MARGARITABLEND14-ounce stemmed glass11/2 ounces tequila3/4 ounce Triple Sec3/4 ounces Midori melon liqueur2 ounces sour mix6 ounces cubed, seeded watermelon8 ounces cube iceLime slice and watermelon wedge

A Few Words about ManhattansAs the popularity of bourbon has surged there has been an equivalent renewal ofinterest in the Mahattan, the classic whiskey cocktail. The drink is smooth, aromatic,and satisfying. Unlike the classic Martini, which many agree is an acquiredtaste, the Manhattan possesses an almost universal appeal, the sophistication of theMartini without the snobbery.Like any other traditional drink, the Manhattan has many variations, includingthe following:* Dry Manhattan: Substitute dry vermouth for sweet vermouth, and a lemontwist for the maraschino cherry* Perfect Manhattan: Use half dry vermouth and half sweet vermouth, and garnishwith a lemon twist* Sweet Manhattan: Add a dash of maraschino-cherry juice to the classic recipe.* Rob Roy: Use Scotch whiskey, sweet vermouth, and a dash of bitters* Latin Manhattan or Little Princess: Use rum instead of whiskey* Quebec Manhattan: Use Canadian whiskey instead of bourbon* Raspberry Manhattan: Add a splash of Chambord.* Italian Manhattan: Add a splash of amaretto.* Spanish Manhattan: Add a splash of sherry.* Paddy: Made with Irish whiskeyThe names change with the ingredients. For example, when you use rum, thedrink is traditionally called a Little Princess, but if you use equal parts rum andsweet vermouth, you will make a Poker. If you make a Manhattan with SouthernComfort as the whiskey, use dry vermouth to cut the sweetness of the liquor.All versions of both the Martini and the Manhattan are made in the same way:stirred in a mixing glass, then strained into a chilled cocktail glass. Straight-upcocktails made with other fortified wines, such as sherry or Dubonnet, are madethe same way.As noted earlier all of these drinks may also be served on the rocks. In this caseyou have a choice of mixing methods. You can make a drink as you do the straightupcocktail by simply straining the contents of the mixing glass into a rocks glassthree-quarters full of cube ice. Or you can build the drink in the rocks glass asyou do the two-liquor drinks on ice. The latter method (which was described inlast article) is the easiest, the fastest, and by far the most common. If you buildin the glass, it is wise to pour the vermouth first. Then, if the mingling of theingredients is less than perfect, the customer will taste the liquor first.If volume warrants Martinis and Manhattans can be premixed in quantity. Justfollow these steps:1. Fill a large, slender-necked funnel with cube ice and put it into the neck of aquart container.2. Pour 4 ounces of the appropriate vermouth and a 750-millileter bottle of theappropriate liquor over the cube ice in the quart container.3. Stir with a long-handled barspoon.4. Keep chilled in the refrigerator until used.5. To serve measure out 31/2 ounces per drink into a chilled cocktail glass.

LEMONGRASS MARGARITABLEND14-ounce stemmed glassCombine the following in a saucepan andheat until a syrup forms:1 part sugar2 parts waterLemongrass stalksKaffir lime leavesGrated fresh gingerLemon zestBlend 3 ounces of syrup with:2 ounces Sauza Commemorativo Tequila1 ounce Triple SecCube iceLemongrass-stalk garnish__________________________________________Today’s Margarita is certainly not confined to Mexican restaurants. It is a pleasingcomplement to seafood and chicken, and a refreshing alternative to wine.Sour-Related DrinksYou can start with the ingredients of the Sour and make several other drink typesby adding another basic ingredient. This results in another set of drink familiesthat includes the Collins, Fizz, Sling, and Daisy. Like the cocktail, these drinksoriginated in the Victorian era and have changed to keep pace with the times. TheCollins is simply a Sour with soda added, served over ice in a tall glass. We notedin last article that today’s Collins is usually a blend of liquor and mix, built in theglass. But if you break down the drink to its components, you can see that thereare other ways to make it: from scratch with fresh ingredients or with a sweet-andsourmix and soda. You will also see by looking at its structure that you can makeother new drinks by changing or adding an ingredient or two.Figure 11.5 shows a Collins being made from scratch using a hand shaker andfreshly squeezed lemon juice. The essential point to grasp is that the drink is madeby combining two methods: first shake, to mix together liquor, sugar, and fruitjuice; then build, to incorporate the soda without losing its bubbles. You can alsomake a Collins from scratch using a shake mixer or a blender (see Figures 11.3and 11.4) and adjusting the ice measurement in step 2. You can make this substitutionin any drink that you can shake by hand. So when a recipe says "shake,"you have your choice of three methods. If you substitute sweet-and-sour mix forthe lemon and sugar in Figure 11.5, you will still make the drink the same way,although you will no longer be making a Collins from scratch.A number of drinks take off from the Collins-with-soda by substituting or adding
other ingredients:
* French 75: A Tom Collins (gin) with Champagne in place of soda
* French 95: A John Collins (bourbon) with Champagne in place of soda
* French 125: A Brandy Collins with Champagne in place of soda
* Skip and Go Naked or Strip and Go Naked: A Vodka Collins or Tom Collins
with beer instead of (or in addition to) soda
A Fizz is much like a Collins except that it is a shorter drink, served in a highball
glass or a stemmed glass of highball size. At one point in cocktail history the
purpose of a Fizz was to be gulped down like an Alka-Seltzer, and for the same
reasons. To make it as bubbly as possible, it was shaken long and hard with ice,
the soda was added under pressure from a seltzer bottle, and the drink was served
foaming in a small glass without ice.

FUN WITH FLAVORS: THE NEW MARTINISThe trade press continually highlightsthe best, brightest, and/oroddest "new" Martini recipes. Thefollowing are just a few:* Salmon Martini: At the Cad’Zan Bar in the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Sarasota,Florida, the inside of a Martini glass islined with a thinly sliced filet of smokedsalmon. Fries Vodka is used, and a teaspoonof farm-raised sturgeon caviar is floated as thegarnish. This specialty drink costs $12.* Tablatini: At Tabla, an East Indian fusion restaurantin New York City, the Martini is achilled fruit soup with vodka, made withpineapple juice, Absolut Citron vodka, limejuice, and a lemongrass-stalk garnish. Thekitchen preps the secondary ingredients.* The Vesper: Pravda, a New York City restaurant,uses both gin and vodka in its bestsellingMartini. Proportions are 3 parts gin, 1part vodka, 1/4 part Lillet; the garnish is alemon twist.* Godiva Diva Martini: At the Cool River Cafe′in Irving, Texas, this dessert-like recipe mixesSmirnoff Vanilla Twist Vodka with GodivaChocolate Liqueur and Amaretto.A splash of liqueur will add a blast of flavorand an attractive color to the Martini. Liqueurrecommendations include Frangelica, Godiva,Curacao, Chambord, Grand Marnier, Amaretto,B&B, and black Sambuca. The use of infusedliquors can produce delicious results, fromlemon-flavored gin, to chili-pepper-flavored tequila.There are also cherry-infused rums andpineapple-infused vodkas. Remember, the betterthe liquor, the better the Martini. Today’s customerappreciates the top-quality, superpremiumbrands and will pay more for them.You might also try presenting your guestswith chilled cocktail glasses and a tray of all ofthe condiments and ingredients to build theirown "perfect" Martini. Premeasure the liquor, ofcourse, in a small carafe nestled into a bowl ofice; put vermouth and other modifiers in othercarafes.

Mixing SoursThe contents of these drinks, citrus juices and sugar, demand that they be shaken,blended, or mechanically mixed, whether you make them from scratch or use asweet-and-sour mix. Neither the sugar nor the fruit juices can be smoothly combinedwith the liquor by stirring, and shaking adds air that lightens the drink andmakes it a bit frothy.The Shake Method. The cocktail shaker was a symbol of the joyous return to legaldrinking after Prohibition. The shaking of a drink was a ceremony of skill thatwhetted the customer’s appetite and simultaneously commanded admiration. Whenmechanical mixers were invented people quickly discovered that they made asmooth drink a great deal faster than with the hand shaker. Today most bars useshake mixers and blenders, and those that use hand shakers do so for reasons oftradition or showmanship. Ironically some bartenders do not even know how toshake a drink by hand. Figure 11.2 shows the making of a sour using a handshaker. You will notice that the first three steps are essentially the same as those ofthe stir method. Since step 4 is the heart of the matter let’s look at this techniquemore closely.FIGURE 11.2 THE SHAKE METHOD: HOW TO MAKE A SOUR IN A HAND SHAKERIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_2009102207460771w6M.jpg)

The cup of the shaker fits tightly over the glass because a certain amount of flexin the metal makes for a good fit. The cap should be put on at an angle with oneof its sides running along the side of the glass. This makes it easier to separate thecup and glass again. (Sometimes shaking creates a vacuum, and the cup adheresto the glass.) Shake vigorously, using long strokes that send the contents from oneend to the other. Some people shake up and down; others shake back and forthover the shoulder.If you have trouble separating the glass from the cup do not yield to the temptationof banging the cup on the rail. You can easily break the glass this way. Youmight also dent the cup. Instead hit the cup with the heel of your hand halfwaybetween the point where the cup touches the glass and the point where it is farthestaway from the glass.Washing, step 7, is necessary because sugar and fruit juices might cling to thesides of the containers after shaking.The Shake-Mix Method. If you use a shake mixer to "shake" your cocktail, substitutethe mixer can for the mixing glass and proceed as shown in Figure 11.3.As you can see the procedures are very similar, but there are some noteworthydifferences. Notice that in step 2, you use only one-fourth can of ice. This is becausethe mixer can is bigger than the mixing glass. You need only enough ice to chillthe drink. In step 4 you substitute the mixer can for the hand shaker. To estimate10 seconds count "one-hundred-one, one-hundred-two," and so on up to "onehundred-ten."THE SHAKE-MIX METHOD: HOW TO MAKE A SOUR IN A SHAKE MIXERIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746078xSB3.jpg)

The Blend Method. To make the same drink using a blender substitute the blendercup for the shaker glass or mixer can. The mixing method is like that for the shakemixer, as you can see in Figure 11.4. Set the blender speed on high, but do notblend longer than the specified time. You do not want to incorporate bits of iceinto the drink; you only want the ice to chill it. Blending too long will turn thedrink into frozen slush.FIGURE 11.4 THE BLEND METHOD: HOW TO MAKE A SOUR IN A BLENDERIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746076nUEi.gif)

A Whiskey Sour is usually made with bourbon or a blended whiskey. A Sourcan be made with any other liquor, such as gin, brandy, Scotch, rum, tequila, andvodka. For speed production you can substitute a jigger of sweet-and-sour mix forthe lemon juice and sugar—but at a considerable sacrifice in quality. In the otherdirection a special touch would be to add a teaspoon of egg white before blendingthe ingredients.The Daiquiri dates back to the Spanish-American War and was named for theDaiquiri iron mines in Cuba. According to the story one of the mine’s chief engineers,an American, developed the cooling, thirst-quenching drink using rum fromthe nearby Bacardi rum plant in lieu of drinking the malaria-tainted local water.The Daiquiri is the prototype for a number of other drinks made with differentspirits. Most similar is the Bacardi; this is essentially a Daiquiri made with Bacardirum, with a dash of grenadine replacing half the sugar. When you change the liquoror substitute a liqueur or a syrup for the sugar, you will find the following familymembers—some familiar, some passe′ but still occasionally called for:* Ward 8: A Bourbon Sour with grenadine added* Side Car: Brandy or cognac, lemon juice, and Cointreau, with a sugared rim.(This drink was invented by a World War I captain who rode to his favoriteParis bistro on a motorcycle with a sidecar.)* Between the Sheets: Half brandy and half rum, lemon or lime juice, and TripleSec. This is a variation of the Side Car.* Jack Rose: Apple brandy, lemon or lime juice, and grenadine* Clover Club: Gin, lemon or lime juice, grenadine, and egg white* Tequila Rose: Tequila, lime juice, and grenadine* Pink Lady (yesterday’s version): Gin, apple brandy, lemon or lime juice, grenadine,and egg white. (The modern Pink Lady adds cream and often omits thejuice and the brandy.)* Gimlet: Gin, and Rose’s Lime Juice (sweet) or fresh lime juice and sugar. (If youuse Rose’s Lime Juice, as nearly everyone does, you can stir it instead of blendingor shaking.)* Scarlett O’Hara: Southern Comfort, cranberry juice, and lime juice. In thisdry version, the liqueur provides the sweetness. (A sweeter version is madewith Southern Comfort, grenadine, and lime juice—a completely differentdrink, undoubtedly invented by a bartender who had no cranberry juice onhand.)___________________________________WHISKEY SOURSHAKE, SHAKE-MIX, OR BLEND41/2-oz sour glass, chilled1 jigger whiskeyJuice from 1/2 lemon1 tsp sugar or 1/2 oz simple syrupLemon or orange slice, cherry___________________________________You can make other very popular versions of the Daiquiri byadding fresh fruit. For example you can blend in half a crushedbanana for a Banana Daiquiri, garnishing it with a banana slice.Blend in crushed fresh or frozen strawberries for a StrawberryDaiquiri, using a whole fresh strawberry as a garnish. Fruit Daiquirisare often made as frozen drinks. You can serve any Souron the rocks in a rocks glass. Shake, blend, or shake-mix theSour the same way that you make a straight-up sour, then pourit over ice in a rocks glass.

Close-Up: THE MARGARITAOne of the most popular drinks of the sour family is the Margarita. In fact itcontinues to be the most-requested cocktail in America. An exceptionally versatileoffering, it can be classified as a shake- or blend-method drink and there are endlessvariations on its three simple ingredients: tequila, a flavorful liqueur, and citrusjuice. Fruits—whatever is fresh and local: peaches, berries, melon, mango, pineapple,and even prickly pear cactus—are commonly used to add flavor and color.The liqueurs range from Triple Sec to Cointreau, and Grand Marnier to Chambord.You can use either fresh lime or Rose’s Lime Juice, depending on desired sweetness,or a nicely balanced base mix of both lemon and lime juices. Some bartenders adda tablespoon of simple syrup to the mix. You can also consider using more thanone type of tequila in a single drink, such as half lively silver, and half mellowanejo.Servers should also ask an all-important question when takingdrink orders: "Frozen or on the rocks?" Many people think ofMargaritas as adult snow cones; others insist that ice dilutes thedrink and want it served with just a bit of ice. Customers alsohave strong preferences for rimming the Margarita glass; the traditionis salt, with a nod to "Los Tres Amigos" (the three friends):tequila, lime, and salt. But many folks don’t like to sip a sweetishdrink through salt and prefer an unrimmed glass. The Margarita’srefreshing nature makes it a popular summer drink, but you’llsell them year-round. Frozen Margaritas offer the additional optionof making two flavors in two different colors and layeringthem in a single glass. The casual Lone Star Steak House chain charges $6 for athree-layered frozen Margarita called Stars & Stripes, which is made with BlueCuracao on the bottom, Jose Cuervo Gold in the middle, and strawberry puree ontop.The watermelon and lemongrass margarita recipes are a couple of imaginativevariations on this catchall tequila-based cocktail.__________________________________________DAIQUIRISHAKE, SHAKE-MIX, OR BLEND41/2-oz cocktail glass, chilled1 jigger light rum1 jigger lime juice1 tsp sugar or 1/2 oz simple syrupWATERMELON MARGARITABLEND14-ounce stemmed glass11/2 ounces tequila3/4 ounce Triple Sec3/4 ounces Midori melon liqueur2 ounces sour mix6 ounces cubed, seeded watermelon8 ounces cube iceLime slice and watermelon wedge

LEMONGRASS MARGARITABLEND14-ounce stemmed glassCombine the following in a saucepan andheat until a syrup forms:1 part sugar2 parts waterLemongrass stalksKaffir lime leavesGrated fresh gingerLemon zestBlend 3 ounces of syrup with:2 ounces Sauza Commemorativo Tequila1 ounce Triple SecCube iceLemongrass-stalk garnish__________________________________________Today’s Margarita is certainly not confined to Mexican restaurants. It is a pleasingcomplement to seafood and chicken, and a refreshing alternative to wine.Sour-Related DrinksYou can start with the ingredients of the Sour and make several other drink typesby adding another basic ingredient. This results in another set of drink familiesthat includes the Collins, Fizz, Sling, and Daisy. Like the cocktail, these drinksoriginated in the Victorian era and have changed to keep pace with the times. TheCollins is simply a Sour with soda added, served over ice in a tall glass. We notedin last article that today’s Collins is usually a blend of liquor and mix, built in theglass. But if you break down the drink to its components, you can see that thereare other ways to make it: from scratch with fresh ingredients or with a sweet-andsourmix and soda. You will also see by looking at its structure that you can makeother new drinks by changing or adding an ingredient or two.Figure 11.5 shows a Collins being made from scratch using a hand shaker andfreshly squeezed lemon juice. The essential point to grasp is that the drink is madeby combining two methods: first shake, to mix together liquor, sugar, and fruitjuice; then build, to incorporate the soda without losing its bubbles. You can alsomake a Collins from scratch using a shake mixer or a blender (see Figures 11.3and 11.4) and adjusting the ice measurement in step 2. You can make this substitutionin any drink that you can shake by hand. So when a recipe says "shake,"you have your choice of three methods. If you substitute sweet-and-sour mix forthe lemon and sugar in Figure 11.5, you will still make the drink the same way,although you will no longer be making a Collins from scratch.A number of drinks take off from the Collins-with-soda by substituting or adding
other ingredients:
* French 75: A Tom Collins (gin) with Champagne in place of soda
* French 95: A John Collins (bourbon) with Champagne in place of soda
* French 125: A Brandy Collins with Champagne in place of soda
* Skip and Go Naked or Strip and Go Naked: A Vodka Collins or Tom Collins
with beer instead of (or in addition to) soda
A Fizz is much like a Collins except that it is a shorter drink, served in a highball
glass or a stemmed glass of highball size. At one point in cocktail history the
purpose of a Fizz was to be gulped down like an Alka-Seltzer, and for the same
reasons. To make it as bubbly as possible, it was shaken long and hard with ice,
the soda was added under pressure from a seltzer bottle, and the drink was served
foaming in a small glass without ice.

FIGURE 11.5 HOW TO MAKE A COLLINS FROM SCRATCHIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746073M2Ve.jpg)Today, because of our modern use of ice, a simple Fizz is more like a shortCollins or a cross between a Sour and a highball. However, some of the elaborationson the basic Fizz make it a good deal more than a simple drink. The following istoday’s basic Fizz:Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Liquor, lemon, sugar, soda, and cube ice* Glass. Highball or 8-ounce stem glass* Mixing method. Shake-buildTo make a Fizz follow the Collins-from-scratch method. The liquor can be anytype. Gin is the most common, but rum, Scotch, brandy, or sloe gin are called fornow and then. The Gin Fizz is the one most frequently elaborated on; othersinclude:* Silver Fizz: A Gin Fizz made with an egg white. If you add grenadine it willbecome a Bird of Paradise Fizz.* Golden Fizz: A Gin Fizz made with an egg yolk* Royal Fizz: A Gin Fizz made with a whole egg and sometimes cream* New Orleans Fizz or Ramos Fizz: A Gin Fizz made with both lemon and lime,added egg white, cream, and a few dashes of orange-flower water, and servedin a tall glass.

One national chain of Mexican restaurants cut its inventory to 35 liquors, 9mixes, plus 4 wines, and 4 beers after conducting careful market research andplanning. This is about one-third of the average unlimited bar. The chain’s fullcolorprinted menu offers 20 mixed drinks: frozen drinks, cocktails, and Slings,some new, some old. The lineup might seem unsophisticated, but it satisfies thetastes of the chain’s youngish, blue-collar clientele. All the drinks are made fromthe same few base liquors, liqueurs, and made-to-order bottled mixes. This makesit possible to hire employees who have little or no previous bartending experience,train them thoroughly to mix each drink on the menu, and serve customers thesame drink in Denver as in Tallahassee at an attractive price.SUMMING UPMany interesting and historical tidbits are associated with the development of theworld’s most popular drinks—including Manhattans, Martinis, and Cuba Libres—and these have made impressive comebacks in bars today. The younger generationenjoys the lore and drama, if you will, of bygone times and nightclubs that movieshave painted as chic and glamorous.If the drinks are not good, though, customers won’t return. Behind the scenesthe systematic development of drinks and a drink menu provides you with performancestandards and products of consistent quality, and makes training easierfor bartenders and cocktail servers. Standardization also facilitates accurately pricingdrinks, controlling costs, and cutting losses, all of which enhance the profit picture.(These factors are discussed in upcoming articles.)In this article you learned about making from scratch the members of a numberof drink families: Martinis, Manhattans, Sours, and Collinses, as well as shooters,tropical drinks, dairy and ice-cream drinks, and frozen drinks. The latter can beincredibly profitable, but only with the right equipment and staff training. We spentadditional time on some of the most popular individual drinks, including the Martini,the Cosmopolitan, and the Margarita.Most bars have a common form of shorthand (abbreviations used to write orders)and a system to "call" the drinks (place the order) at the bar. Planning a drinkmenu makes it much easier to order liquor, with fewer overhead costs and lessstorage space required. In short not every bar has to be able to make every drink.However, a thorough knowledge of drinks opens the door to fun and invention foryou, your bartenders, and your servers. A few unique specialty drinks to complementyour food menu are excellent merchandising devices.

Close-Up: THE COSMOPOLITANThe other Sex and the City cocktail of choice is the Cosmopolitan, the rosy, refreshingKool-Aid of young urbanites. Keep in mind that the Cosmopolitan is not, norhas it ever been, a variation of the Martini. The Cosmopolitan is a member of thesour family and a relative of the Gimlet, a British derivative that had its roots incolonial India. Like classic Martinis, the classic Gimlet used to beprepared with gin, but now vodka is also used. Rose’s Lime Juiceis the modifier.A brief look at the family tree: The Gimlet was first adaptedinto the Kamikaze, which is a Gimlet with a shot of Cointreau,in the 1970s. Then the Kamikaze morphed into the Cosmopolitanby keeping the Rose’s Lime Juice and Cointreau, switching tocitrus-infused vodka and adding cranberry juice.The proliferation of lemon, orange, and other fruit-infusedvodkas makes experimentation fun and profitable. For examplethe Metropolitan is made with Absolut Kurant instead of AbsolutCitron. The Purple Cosmo is made with Stolichnaya Limonaya,Blue Curacao, and Chambord.__________________________________________THE COSMOPOLITANSTIR OR SHAKEStemmed cocktail glass (6–8 ounces) orrocks glass, well chilled11/2 ounces Absolut Citron1/2 ounce Cointreau1/2 ounce fresh lime juice or Rose’s LimeJuice11/2 ounces cranberry juiceLime twist or orange twist__________________________________________SOURS AND SWEET-ANDSOURCOCKTAILSThe idea of combining sweet-and-sour flavors with liquors has been around along time. It is no accident that several of the drinks in the sweet-and-sour cocktail family originated in tropical climates, where lemons and limes grow in profusion.Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Liquor, lemon or lime juice, and a sweetener ("sweet, sour, andstrong")* Glass. Sour or cocktail, chilled* Mixing method. Shake (or blend, or shake-mix)The subgroup of drinks known as sours use lemon rather than lime, have astandard garnish of cherry and orange, and are traditionally served in a sour glassof about 41/2 ounces, whatever size and shape accommodates the garnish attractively.Sometimes a sour is made with egg white or a mix containing frothee, givingthe drink an appetizing fizz topping. The other cocktails in this family, such as theDaiquiri or the Gimlet, are served in a standard cocktail glass of 4 to 41/2 ounces.Some use lime instead of lemon; some use a sweet liqueur or syrup in place ofsugar. Most have no standard garnish. Any of these drinks may also be served overice in a rocks glass if so specified. Some of them are also made in a frozen versionor a fruit version.

These more elaborate Gin Fizzes have undergone further transformation by beingmade with ice cream, which introduces new methods (see page TK). Other Fizzesinclude the Morning Glory Fizz, made with Scotch and a little Pernod, and theSloe Gin Fizz. If you add cream to the Sloe Gin Fizz, it becomes a Slow RideFizz.A Sling is like a Collins to which another ingredient, such asa liqueur or a special flavor or garnish, is added. A Sling is usuallymade by the Collins-from-scratch method and is served in a Collinsglass with fruit garnishes. The most famous Sling, and probablythe one made most often today, is the Singapore Sling. Noticethat this drink is just like a Tom Collins except that it uses cherryliqueur, which is sweet, in place of sugar and has a differentgarnish. The Sling as a "species" has terrific potential as a springboardfor creating your own specialty drinks.A Daisy is nothing more than a Sour made with grenadine asthe sweet, served in a larger glass over crushed ice and garnishedlavishly with fruit. Sometimes a Daisy is served in a silver mugand stirred until the mug frosts, like a Julep._________________________________________SINGAPORE SLINGSHAKE/BUILD12-oz glass3/4 glass cube ice1 jigger gin1/2 jigger cherry-flavored brandy1/2 jigger lemon juiceSoda to fillLemon or lime slice_________________________________________SHOOTERS AND SHOTSThis group of drinks is only loosely considered a "family" because it is defined lessby its pattern of ingredients and more by the size of the drink, its purpose, andthe manner in which it is consumed. These are small, straight-up drinks, servedin a shot glass, and their purpose is simple: pleasure and conviviality. Shooters andshots are generally gulped rather quickly in the company of friends. Creative bartendersare always coming up with new concoctions for this drink category, as theyprovide a good way to give a customer a taste of liquor without ordering a "whole"drink. Most shooters contain no more than 3/4 ounce of liquor; the exceptions aredrinks made specifically to be shared. More about those in a moment. First, thebasic shooter characteristics:Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Any of the following: liquors, liqueurs, fruit juice, soda, cola, sourmix, coffee, cream, and almost anything else—even black pepper with straightvodka, or Tabasco with cinnamon schnapps* Glass. Shot or small rocks* Method. Most are shaken briefly by hand with ice; a few are layered in the styleof a Pousse-Cafe′. The shaker is used for two reasons: to mix and to chill. A fewvigorous shakes are enough; you don’t want to dilute the drink. For a layeredshooter the order of pouring is critical for visual effect (review the informationabout Pousse-Cafe′s), but the layered shooter is consumed in a gulp or two likeany other shooter, not sipped.

Shooter recipes vary from year to year, from bar to bar, and from one part ofthe country to another. Here, for example, are three versions of the very popularSex on the Beach:* Original: Chambord or raspberry liqueur, Midori melon liqueur, and pineapplejuice* New York Style: Peach schnapps, vodka, and orange and cranberry juices* Bennigan’s: Vodka, Midori melon liqueur, Chambord, and pineapple juiceOther popular shooters include:* Alabama Slammer: Southern Comfort, amaretto, orange juice, and grenadine.Another version adds sloe gin and vodka.* No Name: Grenadine, Kahlua, and Bailey’s* Orgasm: Kahlua, Bailey’s, Amaretto, and cream. If you add vodka, the Orgasmwill become a Screaming Orgasm.* Russian Quaalude: Stolichnaya vodka, Frangelico, and Bailey’s* Watermelon: Southern Comfort, Cre`me de Noya, vodka, pineapple and/or orangejuice, and grenadine* Woo Woo: Peach schnapps, vodka, and cranberry juiceToday’s cocktails are for the most part drier and lighter and include more differentkinds of flavors than their turn-of-the-last-century predecessors. Rememberthat additional splash, dash, or float of a juice or liqueur can be the "master stroke"that propels a drink to fame.Although shooters are relatively new to the U.S. scene you can find their antecedentsand counterparts in the use of straight spirits downed quickly for toasts,such as vodka in Russia, Dutch gin in Holland, and Aquavit in Scandinavian countries.These are straight shots of liquor, not mixed drinks. Another related drinkis a straight shot of a spirit, such as whiskey, ordered with a chaser—somethingto drink immediately after the alcohol, such as beer or water. This jigger-size drinkis served in a shot glass. If no chaser is ordered a glass of ice water is usuallyserved anyway.A confusing aspect of shooter recipes is that drinks with thesame names and ingredients are often ordered on the rocks or ashighballs, to be sipped and savored. In this style of drink the totalliquor content may be at least twice the 3/4-ounce limit suggestedfor shooters, but it will be diluted by longer mixing and meltingice, and consumed over a longer period of time. The person takingthe order, for a Kamikaze, for example, should be careful toask whether the customer wants a shooter, a rocks drink, or ahighball. If a shooter is requested the server should monitor thepatron’s consumption and behavior carefully, keeping in mindthat it is illegal everywhere to serve anyone "clearly" or "visibly"intoxicated.Many shooter recipes given today in books and magazines callfor 2 ounces of liquor, and undoubtedly some bars pour shootersthis size. But the prudent bar operation standardizes its shooterrecipes on the safe side and trains its personnel to carefully monitorconsumption.

FIGURE 11.10 Your dessert drink menu can be as fun as you want to make it. This selection is excerpted with permission of The Cheesecake Factory, Inc.,Calabasas Hills, California._____________________________________________________________________________                                               DESSERT DRINK MENU_____________________________________________________________________________SUPER CREAMY DRINKS_______________________FLYING GORILLA^TMFresh Banana, Chocolate, Ice Cream, Créme de Cacao and DeKuyper Banana LiqueurKAHLUA KISSERKahlua, Créme de Cacao, Vodka and Ice CreamSTRAWBERRY CREAMSICLE?Crushed Strawberries, Ice Cream, Vodka and DiSaronno AmarettoCARAMEL TWISTERTMVodka, Butterscotch Schnapps, Praline and Ice Cream with Swirls of Chocolate and Caramel_____________________________________________________________________________COFFEE DRINKS_______________________IRISH COFFEEBushmills Irish Whiskey, Coffee and Whipped CreamJAMAICAN COFFEETia Maria, Myers’s Rum, Dark Créme de Cacao, Coffee and Whipped CreamDR. JIM’S COFFEEKahlua, Grand Marnier, Dark Créme de Cacao, Coffee and Whipped CreamCAFé WYNNIEDiSaronno Amaretto, Baileys, Tia Maria, Coffee and Whipped CreamMEXICAN COFFEESauza Hornitos Tequila, Kahlua, Coffee and Whipped CreamCALYPSO COFFEEMalibu Rum, Frangelico Liqueur, a Hint of Chocolate, Coffee and Whipped CreamBAILEYS COFFEEBaileys Irish Cream, Coffee and Whipped CreamKEOKE COFFEECourvoisier, Kahlua, Dark Créme de Cacao, Coffee and Whipped Cream_____________________________________________________________________________COGNAC, PORT AND SHERRY_________________________Courvoiser VS       Remy Martin VSOP       Hennessy VS      Sandeman TawnyFonseca Bin #27     Dry Sack         Hennessy XO       Harvey’s Bristol Creme_____________________________________________________________________________The printed menu must catch the customer’s eye, whet the appetite, and createa thirst. The menu should spell out the ingredients in each drink since your specialtieswill be new to the customer and the names that you give them won’t meananything. (Patrons might also be interested to read what their old favorites are madeof.) Depending on your clientele and your budget, you might want to illustrateyour menu with inviting photos or sketches of your drinks. Make the menu interestingto browse through; like your food menu, it is a promotional piece.

________________________________________FROZEN PEACH MARGARITABLEND8- to 10-oz stem glass, chilled1 jigger tequila1/2 jigger peach liqueur11/2 jiggers pureed peachesCrushed ice to submerge liquidsFresh peach wedge (in season)________________________________________ALCOHOL-FREE ALTERNATIVESThere are plenty of reasons why people who visit a bar choose not to drink alcoholbut still want to enjoy the atmosphere with friends who do. For the non-drinkingguest the typical alternative to a cocktail used to be a bar-gun-dispensed soft drink.Not anymore! Thanks to the ever-expanding ranks of bottled water, tea, juice,energy drinks, alcohol-free beers, and other nonalcoholic beverages, there are incredibleoptions for making sophisticated and flavorful mocktails, as they are oftencalled.Alcohol-free drinks offer a serious opportunity for incremental sales. For instance,a good nonalcoholic-drink selection can pick up the slack in traditionallylow alcohol sales periods, such as lunch. In addition these drinks appeal to a broadcustomer base: consumers who happen not to want a drink, as well as those whoabstain. In a restaurant setting nonalcoholic beverages appeal to both children andadults. Moreover these drinks can generally be made with existing bar supplies, soinventory issues are minimal.The key to a good nonalcoholic-drink program is to create the recipes and makethe drinks with the same high mixology standards that you apply to regular cocktailsand dessert drinks. You can charge "cocktail prices" for these libations—butonly if you use quality ingredients and take great care in their preparation. Someoperations keep the nonalcoholic-beverage price around $4, which guests find acceptable.Of course for you the profit margin is certainly better than selling a softdrink or iced tea at one third the price. As with other types of specialty drinks, thenext step is to make customers aware of them. Have a separate nonalcoholic-drinkmenu or a creative table tent, or include them on your regular drink menu.In the past nonalcoholic drinks were simply pale imitations of traditional mixeddrinks. This is no longer true today and beverage managers’ creativity is the onlylimitation. One way to jumpstart the mocktail creation process is to take yourexisting lineup of specialty drinks or dessert drinks, and make and taste each onewithout the alcohol. How can each recipe be modified slightly to make sure itdelivers the panache of a "specialty" drink, alcohol-free? What can bartenders dowith seasonal beverages, such as lemonade and cider, to spice them up for customers?How can you make them look as great as they taste?An excellent source of nonalcoholic-beverage recipes is The Original Guide toAlcohol-Free Beverages and Drinks by Robert Plotkin (BarMedia, Tucson, Arizona,2002). Since Plotkin usually writes about bartending, his expertise carries over intosuch topics as techniques and garnishing. On the Internet use the term mocktailand you’ll be surprised by the number of easily accessible recipes. The followingrecipes are from the Liquor Control Board of Ontario, Canada, which lists 160mocktails on its web site (www.lcbo.com):

* Tropical Spritzer. In a cocktail glass filled with ice, mix 3 ounces of mango juiceand 3 ounces of peach juice. Fill with soda water and stir to mix. Garnish witha starfruit slice.* Coco Colada. In a blender, add one cup ice, 4 ounces of pineapple juice, and2 ounces Cream of Coconut (or 6 ounces Pina Colada mix). Blend until slushyand strain into an Old-Fashioned or Margarita glass. Garnish with an orangewheel.* Cognac Craze. In a cocktail shaker filled with ice, combine 2 ounces of raspberryjuice, the juice of one-eighth of a lime, 2 ounces of pineapple juice, and2 ounces of cranberry juice. Shake until frothy and strain into a Hurricane glassfilled with ice. Garnish with a skewer of fresh raspberries.* Vienna Soother. In a cocktail shaker filled with ice, add 4 ounces of cold strongcoffee, 2 ounces of cream, 1/4 ounce chocolate syrup, and 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon.Shake well and strain into a tumbler. Top with whipped cream and shavedchocolate.FILLING DRINK ORDERSMost drinks are made to order drink by drink, but the orders seldom come in onedrink at a time. The following tips on handling orders will help you to successfullymeet this challenge:* Speed. Keeping up with the orders.* Quality. Getting the drink to the customer at its peak of perfection.* Accuracy. Delivering the right drink to the right customer.First deal with one set of orders, that is, one server’s guest check or one partyof bar customers. Set up all the glasses at once; this will help you remember whatwas ordered. Group the glasses according to the base liquor, setting them up inthe same sequence as the liquor bottles in the well. (Have your servers "call"drinks—state their names to you—in this order, too.) In this way a good bartendercan handle a fairly long list without taking time to refer back to the written ticket.If the order contains several identical drinks that are not built in the glass makethem together. Put extra ice in the mixing glass or the blender or mixer cup,multiply each ingredient by the number of drinks, and proceed as for a singledrink. Divide the finished product among the glasses that you have set out for thesedrinks, but not all at once. Fill each glass half full the first time around, then adda little more product to each glass in another round or two until you complete allof these drinks evenly.Make drinks in the following sequence:1. Start frozen drinks and ice-cream drinks (they will be made in their machineswhile the rest are being poured).2. Pour straight liquor drinks (straight shots, liquor on rocks).3. Fix juice drinks and Sours.4. Prepare cream drinks and hot drinks.5. Mix highballs with carbonated mixers.6. Pour draft beer.This sequence enables you to make first those drinks that keep best and to makelast those that don’t hold well. Some places have the server call drinks in thissequence instead of in the well order.

When writing an order on a guest check use a standard set of abbreviations fordrinks, liquors, brand names, mixes, and special garnishes. Figure 11.8 gives yousome suggestions. Abbreviations vary from one bar to another. You can adapt theseto your needs or create your own bar shorthand—just make sure that everyoneon both sides of the bar knows and uses it correctly.FIGURE 11.8 GUEST-CHECK ABBREVIATIONSIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746071rhWY.jpg)When you write a drink order a slash is used to separate the items in theinstructions. For example a very dry Vodka Martini on the rocks with a twist iswritten: V MT/XX/R/TW. Bar shorthand might seem like Greek when you’re firstgetting used to it, but soon you will find it indispensable—and if you use a computerizedPOS system, getting it right in order to enter the data is even more critical.When a server takes a table order the best way to get the right drink to theright person is to pick out one seat as number 1—say, the seat closest to the bar.Then number each seat in order around the table. Next, write each drink on thecheck following the number of the customer’s seat. Figure 11.9 is an example of aguest check for a party of six.

FIGURE 11.9 Guest check using typical abbreviations. Seat numbers are in the left column.IMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746072ZFkV.gif)DEVELOPING DRINK MENUSAND SPECIALTY DRINKSOnce you have a thorough knowledge of drinks and the ways they are made, youwill understand why planning the drink menu—the range and types of drinks youwill serve—is one of your most important tasks. The drinks you serve will determinethe sizes of glassware, the number and type of ice machines, the refrigeratorand freezer space, the small equipment and utensils, and the space on the backbar.These drinks will also determine the skill level that you require of your bartendersand servers. And, of course, they will determine the kinds of liquor and suppliesyou buy and the number of items you must keep in inventory.

The Unlimited BarConceptIf your menu concept is an unlimited bar, that is, one that serves the full spectrumof drinks, you must be able to produce those drinks. This means having the equipmentthat produces both cubed ice and crushed ice, glassware that will accommodateeverything from the after-dinner liqueur to the Zombie, a freezer orsoft-serve machine for ice cream, a means of chilling cocktail glasses, all the necessarysmall equipment, an ample draft-beer setup, and 100 or more differentbeverages in your inventory. In addition you must have skilled and knowledgeablebartenders, as well as servers who know how to take and transmit orders.For many types of enterprises, the versatility of the unlimited bar is part of thebar’s image. Even though the customer may order the same drink time after time(often without knowing what is in it or how much it costs), the assurance that thatdrink is available at that bar is important. It is also possible for a whole party ofpeople to order widely different types of drinks to suit their individual tastes. Theunlimited bar is essential to the expensive restaurant, where excellence in everythingis its image.The Limited Drink MenuMany restaurant-bars today use printed drink menus. You may find them in restaurantswhere drinks are secondary to food or in trendy neighborhood bar-andgrills.Drink menus usually feature specialty drinks along with old favorites, withdescriptions that raise the thirst level as they list the ingredients. An establishmentmay have a list of special drinks written in chalk on a blackboard at the bar. Thesedrink menus are proving to be good sales stimulators. At the same time by focusingattention on a limited selection, they can eliminate some of the costs of a fullspectrumbar.For example a well-designed specialty menu can reduce the extensive liquorinventory required in an unlimited bar. If you offer an attractive selection of 15 or20 drinks—all carefully planned to be based on a few liquors, liqueurs, andmixes—you can cut the number of items in your inventory by half, at least. Youshould still be prepared to serve the standard highballs, Martinis, and Bloody Marys,and you will still need to carry a small selection of the popular call brands, butyour customers will order up to 90 percent of their drinks from your printed menu.The limited drink menu applies the philosophy of the limited food menu: Insteadof offering everything anyone might want, you specialize in the same waythat you develop a successful food menu. You combine a few basic ingredientsusing a skillful mix-and-match technique, in the same way that an Italian restaurantoffers a long list of entre′es by mixing and matching pastas and sauces.The limited drink menu also shares some other advantages of the limited foodmenu. Properly developed, it can mean that less equipment is needed at the barand that less space is needed for the smaller inventory—and, thus, less investmentoverall. This can mean that fewer skills and less experience are required of thebartenders, so you do not need to pay higher-skill wages. Your own training ofpersonnel to prepare your selection of drinks can produce that sought-after consistencyof product. In addition you can choose the base ingredients with an eyeto keeping down costs: vodka and rum are cheaper than whiskies, and they mixwell with a variety of flavor additions. Also, buying large quantities of fewer itemsmight result in better quantity discounts.

For a limited menu to be successful the first requirement is that it must reflectthe tastes of your customers. If you are already in business you have data on yourmost popular drink types. Include the favorites, then go from there to make newdrinks by changing or adding flavors and flavor accents. If your enterprise is newfind out what your target population is drinking in other places. Be sure to includehouse wines and a selection of popular beers—something for everybody.Creating Signature DrinksSignature cocktails are born from innovative mixology and clever merchandising—arguably the former is an art form; the latter, an acquired skill. A number ofthe drinks mentioned in this article and last aritlce are the specialties of particularbartenders, bars, or restaurants, and every bar should have them. But what makesany drink a "signature?" What gives it distinctive marketability?A signature cocktail is often the result of brainstorming new drinks that matchcurrent trends. It must have a flavor that appeals to a variety of palates, and itshould convey the spirit or theme of the bar or restaurant in which it was created.A bit of mystique, whether it’s a funny story, an upscale image, or a top-secretrecipe, never hurts. It is absolutely critical to keep the taste and quality of thisdrink consistent. The key is to take the "right" ingredients and make them yourown. Since bartenders are experimenting all the time, it’s up to you to cleverlysubstitute interesting new ingredients in tasty new ways and to vary the presentationjust enough to be unique.In case you haven’t noticed, even the most famous bars have only one or two"signature" drinks. In New Orleans, it’s the Hurricane at Pat O’Brien’s, and theBrandy Milk Punch at Dickie Brennan’s Steakhouse. Don’t overwhelm your guestswith a barrage of new drinks. This will scare customers away. Introduce the drinksseasonally or one every month, to see which ones sell and which ones have potential.Here are a few additional pointers about developing specialty drinks:* Cater to your clientele and their preferences. Observe the basic drink structurediscussed in last article. A successful drink has a base liquor, plus one or moreflavor modifiers or flavor accents. The base liquor should be at least 50 percentof the liquor in the drink.* Do not treat this as a contest to challenge your customers’ taste buds. Chooseflavor combinations that are compatible. Mixing orange juice and chocolateprobably will not work. Use popular flavors. Try adding a trendy flavor as afloat atop a familiar drink, or be the first to make an old drink with a newproduct. Replace a plain liquor with an infusion that adds a new accent.* Consider the use of fresh ingredients. Think about which flavors and items arealready "signatures" in your local area. Use them to create drink recipes. Fresh,quality ingredients that can be obtained locally can help a cocktail become a"local favorite," which ironically helps sell it to visitors, too.* Consider your equipment, glassware, and space. If you want to feature frozendrinks you must have an ample supply of crushed or flake ice and plenty ofblenders, or enough demand for a single specialty to invest in a frozen-drinkmachine. If you want to serve ice-cream drinks, you must have ice-cream equipmentat the bar. A custom cocktail deserves a custom glass, and you must beable to stock and store them in sufficient numbers.

* Consider your bartenders’ skill level. If you want to serve flaming drinks, besure that your personnel can make them without using a fire extinguisher. Donot introduce too many new items at once—it will confuse the staff and thecustomers.* Keep the drinks fairly simple so they can be made quickly. Consider includinga few mocktails. Dress them up handsomely and offer them free of charge todesignated drivers.* Consider your profit margin. Signature drinks are supposed to be high-volumeitems—at least, once they catch on—so keep your costs low when seeking outingredients.* Plan attractive visual effects, dream up catchy names, and blend it all intoyour image. This means using custom glassware, adding eye-catching garnishes,and coming up with drink monikers that are a play on words and/or fit thebar’s theme, neighborhood, and clientele.BARTENDER PICKS: 2001-2004____________________________________________________________One excellent way to keep up onbartending trends is to read thefeature entitled "Bartender Picks,"which appears regularly in thetrade magazine Market Watch.The following are some samplesfrom the last few years that we hope will sparkyour own signature creations.2001* Bartender Steve Zell at the Cypress Club inSan Francisco is somewhat of a traditionalist.He says he began his bartending career at age12 at home, pouring drinks for his dad! Oneof Zell’s signature drinks is the Pink Thing,which is made with Absolut Vodka, orangejuice, cranberry juice, and DeKuyper BlueberrySchnapps; shaken with ice; and servedin a Martini glass.* Mike Smith was a bartender at the ColumbusHotel in New Orleans for almost 20 years. Inthe Victoria Lounge his operating philosophywas to use the right ingredients and the rightamounts when mixing cocktails. His signaturedrink, the Pretty Baby, made with AbsolutVodka, light Cre`me de Cacao, heavycream, and a dash of grenadine, broughtcountless tourists to his bar pre-HurricaneKatrina. Smith shakes and strains this drinkinto a rocks glass over ice. The drink’s namecomes from the 1970s movie starring BrookeShields, which was partially filmed at the hotel.2002* Marcela Llodra at the Champagne Bar/Loungein Miami, Florida, offers 46 Champagnes bythe bottle and by the glass and a me′langeof Champagne-based cocktails. A native ofChile, she says that her signature drink isPearl l’Orange, which is made with AbsolutMandarin, DeKuyper Pucker WatermelonSchnapps, and a splash of cranberry juice.The drink is served in a Martini glass rimmedwith sugar and garnished with several freshmelon balls.

* Joy Perrine of Jack’s Lounge in Louisville,Kentucky, has almost 40 years of experiencebehind the bar. She prefers bourbon, Kentucky’sfavorite, to create delicious drinks.One of her signatures is the Bourbon Ball,which is made with Woodford Reserve Bourbon,DeKuyper Dark Cre`me de Cacao, andTuaca liqueur. Shake the ingredients with ice,then strain into a Martini glass, and garnishwith a fresh, stem-on strawberry.2004* Steve Burney manages Oliver’s Lounge in theMayflower Park Hotel in Washington, DC. Hetakes great pride in the well-constructedcocktail. His signature drink is the ParadigmShift, which is made with Ketel One Vodka,Bombay Dry Gin, Campari, and fresh raspberrysour, garnished with a Texas Ruby Redgrapefruit wedge. Pour the ingredients withice into a shaker, including the juice squeezedfrom the grapefruit wedge. Shake and strainthem into a chilled Martini glass and garnishthe drink with fresh raspberries.* Jodi Lee Smith, bar manager at The Wave, therestaurant in Chicago’s W Hotel, creates herown simple syrup with spices, an idea shecredits to her chef, who supports the use ofkitchen spices to make drinks. One of Smith’sdrinks, called Fresh, is made with LichikoVodka, pineapple juice, and her signature "IceBar Spice," shaken with ice, and served in aMartini glass. The drink is garnished with acardamom-soaked pineapple slice and a sprigof mint.____________________________________________________________Promoting Your WaresMaking a commitment to creating specialty drinks means you will also need topromote them. A successful promotion should be consistent with your bar’s "personality"or concept, as well as its clientele. A classy, after-work business crowdmight not appreciate your rum drinks served in pineapple "bowls" with paperumbrellas in them, but they probably would appreciate an upscale Scotch selectionand knowledgeable servers who can make recommendations about it. You have agoal when you run a promotion: either generating repeat business or generatingmore sales from existing customers. This is actually a long-term process, not aweeklong endeavor, so it might require spending a little of your hard-earned moneyto print collateral material: table tents, individual drink menus, or a list of drinkson your regular dining menu. A chalkboard list is another way to give guests theimpression that they are trying something up-to-the-minute. Listing after-dinnerdrinks in a separate dessert menu is a good idea, as seen on the sample menu inFigure 11.10. A dessert menu is also the perfect place for touting coffee drinks.

In spite of the shooter vogue, you may see these drinks dwindlingin popularity. They are characteristic of the old neighborhoodbar where the primary focus is on drinking. This species ofbar has, for the most part, been edged out by newcomers. TheU.S. obsession with health, the neoProhibitionist movement, thecrusade against drunk driving, and proprietors’ fear of liabilityhave combined to prompt a change of emphasis, which now linksdrinking with dining. Drinking for its own sake simply is no longer fashionable._________________________________________KAMIKAZESHAKEShot glass1/2 oz vodka1/4 oz Rose’s Lime JuiceSplash Triple SecShake briefly in hand shaker with ice;strainB-52BUILDShot or pony glass1/4 oz Kahlua1/4 oz Bailey’s Irish Cream1/4 oz Grand MarnierLayer ingredients in order given_________________________________________TROPICAL DRINKSThe collective term tropical drinks as used in the bar trade comprises a loosecollection of drinks originating in resorts in the tropics and in restaurants with atropical ambience. The family characteristics are diffuse: There are no indispensableingredients that tie them all together. Generally they have various kinds of rum astheir base and make lavish use of fruit juices, liqueurs, syrups, and flower and fruitgarnishes. These drinks are showy, often expensive to make, and thus command ahigh price tag. Cheaper and easier versions of some can be made using bottledmixes.Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Rum (occasionally brandy and once in a whilegin), fruit juices, liqueurs, syrups, coconut milk, fruit garnishes,flowers, and fresh mint* Glass. Anything from a cocktail glass to a whole coconut orpineapple* Mixing method. Shake (or blend, or shake-mix)Among the fruit juices are pineapple and papaya, and suchother exotics as kiwi and mango, in addition to the usual lemon,lime, and orange juices. Among the syrups, grenadine, orgeat,falernum, and passionfruit are popular. The liqueurs frequentlycalled for are fruit-flavored brandies, cherry liqueur, Curacao, andPernod or some other absinthe substitute. Coconut milk is anotheringredient. Among the garnishes are pineapple cubes, coconut,mint leaves, the usual oranges, limes, and cherries, andorchids if available.

FIGURE 11.5 HOW TO MAKE A COLLINS FROM SCRATCHIMAGE(https://etravelweek.com/hmattachments/26_200910220746073M2Ve.jpg)Today, because of our modern use of ice, a simple Fizz is more like a shortCollins or a cross between a Sour and a highball. However, some of the elaborationson the basic Fizz make it a good deal more than a simple drink. The following istoday’s basic Fizz:Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Liquor, lemon, sugar, soda, and cube ice* Glass. Highball or 8-ounce stem glass* Mixing method. Shake-buildTo make a Fizz follow the Collins-from-scratch method. The liquor can be anytype. Gin is the most common, but rum, Scotch, brandy, or sloe gin are called fornow and then. The Gin Fizz is the one most frequently elaborated on; othersinclude:* Silver Fizz: A Gin Fizz made with an egg white. If you add grenadine it willbecome a Bird of Paradise Fizz.* Golden Fizz: A Gin Fizz made with an egg yolk* Royal Fizz: A Gin Fizz made with a whole egg and sometimes cream* New Orleans Fizz or Ramos Fizz: A Gin Fizz made with both lemon and lime,added egg white, cream, and a few dashes of orange-flower water, and servedin a tall glass.

These more elaborate Gin Fizzes have undergone further transformation by beingmade with ice cream, which introduces new methods (see page TK). Other Fizzesinclude the Morning Glory Fizz, made with Scotch and a little Pernod, and theSloe Gin Fizz. If you add cream to the Sloe Gin Fizz, it becomes a Slow RideFizz.A Sling is like a Collins to which another ingredient, such asa liqueur or a special flavor or garnish, is added. A Sling is usuallymade by the Collins-from-scratch method and is served in a Collinsglass with fruit garnishes. The most famous Sling, and probablythe one made most often today, is the Singapore Sling. Noticethat this drink is just like a Tom Collins except that it uses cherryliqueur, which is sweet, in place of sugar and has a differentgarnish. The Sling as a "species" has terrific potential as a springboardfor creating your own specialty drinks.A Daisy is nothing more than a Sour made with grenadine asthe sweet, served in a larger glass over crushed ice and garnishedlavishly with fruit. Sometimes a Daisy is served in a silver mugand stirred until the mug frosts, like a Julep._________________________________________SINGAPORE SLINGSHAKE/BUILD12-oz glass3/4 glass cube ice1 jigger gin1/2 jigger cherry-flavored brandy1/2 jigger lemon juiceSoda to fillLemon or lime slice_________________________________________SHOOTERS AND SHOTSThis group of drinks is only loosely considered a "family" because it is defined lessby its pattern of ingredients and more by the size of the drink, its purpose, andthe manner in which it is consumed. These are small, straight-up drinks, servedin a shot glass, and their purpose is simple: pleasure and conviviality. Shooters andshots are generally gulped rather quickly in the company of friends. Creative bartendersare always coming up with new concoctions for this drink category, as theyprovide a good way to give a customer a taste of liquor without ordering a "whole"drink. Most shooters contain no more than 3/4 ounce of liquor; the exceptions aredrinks made specifically to be shared. More about those in a moment. First, thebasic shooter characteristics:Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Any of the following: liquors, liqueurs, fruit juice, soda, cola, sourmix, coffee, cream, and almost anything else—even black pepper with straightvodka, or Tabasco with cinnamon schnapps* Glass. Shot or small rocks* Method. Most are shaken briefly by hand with ice; a few are layered in the styleof a Pousse-Cafe′. The shaker is used for two reasons: to mix and to chill. A fewvigorous shakes are enough; you don’t want to dilute the drink. For a layeredshooter the order of pouring is critical for visual effect (review the informationabout Pousse-Cafe′s), but the layered shooter is consumed in a gulp or two likeany other shooter, not sipped.

Shooter recipes vary from year to year, from bar to bar, and from one part ofthe country to another. Here, for example, are three versions of the very popularSex on the Beach:* Original: Chambord or raspberry liqueur, Midori melon liqueur, and pineapplejuice* New York Style: Peach schnapps, vodka, and orange and cranberry juices* Bennigan’s: Vodka, Midori melon liqueur, Chambord, and pineapple juiceOther popular shooters include:* Alabama Slammer: Southern Comfort, amaretto, orange juice, and grenadine.Another version adds sloe gin and vodka.* No Name: Grenadine, Kahlua, and Bailey’s* Orgasm: Kahlua, Bailey’s, Amaretto, and cream. If you add vodka, the Orgasmwill become a Screaming Orgasm.* Russian Quaalude: Stolichnaya vodka, Frangelico, and Bailey’s* Watermelon: Southern Comfort, Cre`me de Noya, vodka, pineapple and/or orangejuice, and grenadine* Woo Woo: Peach schnapps, vodka, and cranberry juiceToday’s cocktails are for the most part drier and lighter and include more differentkinds of flavors than their turn-of-the-last-century predecessors. Rememberthat additional splash, dash, or float of a juice or liqueur can be the "master stroke"that propels a drink to fame.Although shooters are relatively new to the U.S. scene you can find their antecedentsand counterparts in the use of straight spirits downed quickly for toasts,such as vodka in Russia, Dutch gin in Holland, and Aquavit in Scandinavian countries.These are straight shots of liquor, not mixed drinks. Another related drinkis a straight shot of a spirit, such as whiskey, ordered with a chaser—somethingto drink immediately after the alcohol, such as beer or water. This jigger-size drinkis served in a shot glass. If no chaser is ordered a glass of ice water is usuallyserved anyway.A confusing aspect of shooter recipes is that drinks with thesame names and ingredients are often ordered on the rocks or ashighballs, to be sipped and savored. In this style of drink the totalliquor content may be at least twice the 3/4-ounce limit suggestedfor shooters, but it will be diluted by longer mixing and meltingice, and consumed over a longer period of time. The person takingthe order, for a Kamikaze, for example, should be careful toask whether the customer wants a shooter, a rocks drink, or ahighball. If a shooter is requested the server should monitor thepatron’s consumption and behavior carefully, keeping in mindthat it is illegal everywhere to serve anyone "clearly" or "visibly"intoxicated.Many shooter recipes given today in books and magazines callfor 2 ounces of liquor, and undoubtedly some bars pour shootersthis size. But the prudent bar operation standardizes its shooterrecipes on the safe side and trains its personnel to carefully monitorconsumption.

In spite of the shooter vogue, you may see these drinks dwindlingin popularity. They are characteristic of the old neighborhoodbar where the primary focus is on drinking. This species ofbar has, for the most part, been edged out by newcomers. TheU.S. obsession with health, the neoProhibitionist movement, thecrusade against drunk driving, and proprietors’ fear of liabilityhave combined to prompt a change of emphasis, which now linksdrinking with dining. Drinking for its own sake simply is no longer fashionable._________________________________________KAMIKAZESHAKEShot glass1/2 oz vodka1/4 oz Rose’s Lime JuiceSplash Triple SecShake briefly in hand shaker with ice;strainB-52BUILDShot or pony glass1/4 oz Kahlua1/4 oz Bailey’s Irish Cream1/4 oz Grand MarnierLayer ingredients in order given_________________________________________TROPICAL DRINKSThe collective term tropical drinks as used in the bar trade comprises a loosecollection of drinks originating in resorts in the tropics and in restaurants with atropical ambience. The family characteristics are diffuse: There are no indispensableingredients that tie them all together. Generally they have various kinds of rum astheir base and make lavish use of fruit juices, liqueurs, syrups, and flower and fruitgarnishes. These drinks are showy, often expensive to make, and thus command ahigh price tag. Cheaper and easier versions of some can be made using bottledmixes.Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Rum (occasionally brandy and once in a whilegin), fruit juices, liqueurs, syrups, coconut milk, fruit garnishes,flowers, and fresh mint* Glass. Anything from a cocktail glass to a whole coconut orpineapple* Mixing method. Shake (or blend, or shake-mix)Among the fruit juices are pineapple and papaya, and suchother exotics as kiwi and mango, in addition to the usual lemon,lime, and orange juices. Among the syrups, grenadine, orgeat,falernum, and passionfruit are popular. The liqueurs frequentlycalled for are fruit-flavored brandies, cherry liqueur, Curacao, andPernod or some other absinthe substitute. Coconut milk is anotheringredient. Among the garnishes are pineapple cubes, coconut,mint leaves, the usual oranges, limes, and cherries, andorchids if available.

Both types of tropical drinks can also be made from preparedmixes, and usually are. The Mai Tai, like many other tropicaldrinks, was created by Trader Vic in the 1940s, and is still goingstrong. In Hawaii, where orchids grow on trees, your bountifulglass of Mai Tai will be topped with at least one flower. Pineappleused in the Pina Colada can be either fresh or canned. If you usethe crushed fruit, be sure to blend at high speed until smooth. Avariation of the Pina Colada is the Chi Chi, which is made withvodka instead of rum. Other classic tropical drinks are Planter’sPunch, the Scorpion, and the Zombie. One story says that bucketsof Planter’s Punch were carried to workers in the sugarcane fields.Another story says the drink was a specialty of the famousPlanter’s Hotel in St. Louis. Both stories could be true. These threedrinks are typically finished off with a float of 151-proof rum sothat the customer’s first sip is the "sting" of the scorpion, the"punch" of the planter, or the "kick" of the zombie. The Zombiemade its fame with the kick, the name, the challenge of "onlyone to a customer," and in some cases the recipe: Some includefour or five kinds of rum.The Brazilian rum called cachaca, mentioned in before, isthe base for the Caipirinha, a very simple, tasty South Americandrink that has grown in popularity along with its Nuevo Latinocousins, such as the Mojito.___________________________________MAI TAI (FROM SCRATCH)SHAKE, BLEND, OR SHAKE-MIX12-oz glass3/4 glass cubed or crushed ice1 jigger light rum1 jigger dark rum1 lime (juice and peel)1/2 oz orange Curacao1/2 oz orgeatPineapple stick, cherry, mint sprigPINA COLADA (FROM SCRATCH)BLEND12-oz glass3/4 glass cubed or crushed ice1 jigger light rum1 jigger Cream of Coconut or coconutmilk1–2 jiggers pineapple juice or crushedpineappleCherry, pineapple, limCAIPIRINHASHAKE6- to 8-oz Old-Fashioned glass1/2 lime cut in four wedgesMuddle lime in bottom of glass2 oz cachaca3/4 oz simple syrup___________________________________

Both types of tropical drinks can also be made from preparedmixes, and usually are. The Mai Tai, like many other tropicaldrinks, was created by Trader Vic in the 1940s, and is still goingstrong. In Hawaii, where orchids grow on trees, your bountifulglass of Mai Tai will be topped with at least one flower. Pineappleused in the Pina Colada can be either fresh or canned. If you usethe crushed fruit, be sure to blend at high speed until smooth. Avariation of the Pina Colada is the Chi Chi, which is made withvodka instead of rum. Other classic tropical drinks are Planter’sPunch, the Scorpion, and the Zombie. One story says that bucketsof Planter’s Punch were carried to workers in the sugarcane fields.Another story says the drink was a specialty of the famousPlanter’s Hotel in St. Louis. Both stories could be true. These threedrinks are typically finished off with a float of 151-proof rum sothat the customer’s first sip is the "sting" of the scorpion, the"punch" of the planter, or the "kick" of the zombie. The Zombiemade its fame with the kick, the name, the challenge of "onlyone to a customer," and in some cases the recipe: Some includefour or five kinds of rum.The Brazilian rum called cachaca, mentioned in before, isthe base for the Caipirinha, a very simple, tasty South Americandrink that has grown in popularity along with its Nuevo Latinocousins, such as the Mojito.___________________________________MAI TAI (FROM SCRATCH)SHAKE, BLEND, OR SHAKE-MIX12-oz glass3/4 glass cubed or crushed ice1 jigger light rum1 jigger dark rum1 lime (juice and peel)1/2 oz orange Curacao1/2 oz orgeatPineapple stick, cherry, mint sprigPINA COLADA (FROM SCRATCH)BLEND12-oz glass3/4 glass cubed or crushed ice1 jigger light rum1 jigger Cream of Coconut or coconutmilk1–2 jiggers pineapple juice or crushedpineappleCherry, pineapple, limCAIPIRINHASHAKE6- to 8-oz Old-Fashioned glass1/2 lime cut in four wedgesMuddle lime in bottom of glass2 oz cachaca3/4 oz simple syrup___________________________________

CREAM DRINKSCream drinks are smooth, sweet, after-dinner drinks made with cream and usuallyserved straight up in a cocktail or Champagne glass.Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Cream, and one or more liqueurs or a liquor-liqueur combination* Glass. Cocktail or Champagne, chilled* Mixing method. Shake (or blend or shake-mix)The proportions of the ingredients vary from one house toanother. Some use equal parts (from 1/2 ounce to 1 ounce of each),others use up to 2 ounces of cream and smaller amounts of theother ingredients, and still others use more of the predominantflavor or the major liquor if there is one. The total ingredientsshould add up to about 3 ounces; any more and you might haveto use a larger glass. Light cream or half-and-half is typically used,but heavy cream makes a better drink. The cream must be veryfresh. Whether you blend, shake, or shake-mix a cream drink,you follow the steps given for a sweet-and-sour cocktail. You maywant to serve a cream drink with a pair of short straws. After mixing you mustwash and rinse both your jigger and your glass or cup because the cream andliqueurs cling to the sides.Two familiar cream drinks are the Brandy Alexander and theGrasshopper. You can make an Alexander using any base liquorinstead of the brandy. Apparently the earliest was the Gin Alexander,invented to disguise the awful bathtub gin of Prohibitiondays. Light Cre`me de Cacao is used when the base liquor is alight color, such as vodka, rum, and tequila. Dark Cre`me de Cacaois used with brandy and whiskies. An Alexander made withvodka sometimes is called a Russian Bear or a White Elephant.An Alexander made with rum becomes a Panama. The originalcream concoctions spawned a whole menagerie of "animal"drinks:__________________________________BRANDY ALEXANDERSHAKE, BLEND, OR SHAKE-MIXCocktail or Champagne glass3/4 oz brandy3/4 oz dark Cre`me de Cacao1 oz creamGRASSHOPPERSHAKE, BLEND, OR SHAKE-MIXCocktail or Champagne glass3/4 oz green Cre`me de Menthe3/4 oz light Cre`me de Cacao1 oz cream__________________________________* Pink Squirrel: Light Cre`me de Cacao, Cre`me de Noyaux, and cream* Brown Squirrel: Dark Cre`me de Cacao, amaretto, and cream

CREAM DRINKSCream drinks are smooth, sweet, after-dinner drinks made with cream and usuallyserved straight up in a cocktail or Champagne glass.Family Characteristics* Ingredients. Cream, and one or more liqueurs or a liquor-liqueur combination* Glass. Cocktail or Champagne, chilled* Mixing method. Shake (or blend or shake-mix)The proportions of the ingredients vary from one house toanother. Some use equal parts (from 1/2 ounce to 1 ounce of each),others use up to 2 ounces of cream and smaller amounts of theother ingredients, and still others use more of the predominantflavor or the major liquor if there is one. The total ingredientsshould add up to about 3 ounces; any more and you might haveto use a larger glass. Light cream or half-and-half is typically used,but heavy cream makes a better drink. The cream must be veryfresh. Whether you blend, shake, or shake-mix a cream drink,you follow the steps given for a sweet-and-sour cocktail. You maywant to serve a cream drink with a pair of short straws. After mixing you mustwash and rinse both your jigger and your glass or cup because the cream andliqueurs cling to the sides.Two familiar cream drinks are the Brandy Alexander and theGrasshopper. You can make an Alexander using any base liquorinstead of the brandy. Apparently the earliest was the Gin Alexander,invented to disguise the awful bathtub gin of Prohibitiondays. Light Cre`me de Cacao is used when the base liquor is alight color, such as vodka, rum, and tequila. Dark Cre`me de Cacaois used with brandy and whiskies. An Alexander made withvodka sometimes is called a Russian Bear or a White Elephant.An Alexander made with rum becomes a Panama. The originalcream concoctions spawned a whole menagerie of "animal"drinks:__________________________________BRANDY ALEXANDERSHAKE, BLEND, OR SHAKE-MIXCocktail or Champagne glass3/4 oz brandy3/4 oz dark Cre`me de Cacao1 oz creamGRASSHOPPERSHAKE, BLEND, OR SHAKE-MIXCocktail or Champagne glass3/4 oz green Cre`me de Menthe3/4 oz light Cre`me de Cacao1 oz cream__________________________________* Pink Squirrel: Light Cre`me de Cacao, Cre`me de Noyaux, and cream* Brown Squirrel: Dark Cre`me de Cacao, amaretto, and cream

* Blue-Tailed Fly: Light Cre`me de Cacao, blue Curacao, and cream* White Monkey or Banshee: Light Cre`me de Cacao, Cre`me de Banana, and cream* Purple Bunny: Light Cre`me de Cacao, cherry-flavored brandy, and creamIn addition to the critters, we have:* Golden Cadillac: Light Cre`me de Cacao, Galliano, and cream* White Cadillac: Light Cre`me de Cacao, Cointreau, and cream* Velvet Hammer: Vodka or Cointreau, light Cre`me de Cacao, and cream* Cucumber: Green Cre`me de Menthe and cream. Other versions add brandy orgin as the base ingredient.* White Russian: A Black Russian with cream* Golden Dream: Galliano, Triple Sec, orange juice, and cream* Pink Lady: Gin, grenadine, and creamAny of the cream drinks may be served on the rocks if the customer requestsit. A cream drink on the rocks must be blended or shaken as for a straight-updrink, then strained over cube ice in a rocks glass. Sometimes a cream drink isbuilt in the glass without stirring over cube ice in a rocks glass. Sometimes it isbuilt in the glass without stirring, with the cream as a float. This makes a verydifferent drink.Other spinoffs of the after-dinner cream drinks are made when you add a mixer.They become highball-sized drinks. For example, the Colorado Bulldog starts offas a vodka-Kahlua-cream drink, shaken and poured over ice in a highball glass.Next, the glass is filled with cola. The drink is made using the shake-build method.OTHER DAIRY DRINKSIn addition to cream other dairy products are sometimes used inmixed drinks. These are usually long drinks rather than cocktails,i.e., pick-me-ups or nightcaps rather than aperitifs or digestifs.They are simply too filling to precede or follow a meal, whichmay explain why they’re not particularly popular. It is hard tosay whether the current crop of milk drinks is a logical extensionof the popular cream drinks or a modern version of old coloniallibations. There seem to be some of each type.Today’s milk punches are clearly descendants of the olderpunch drinks, using milk instead of water and served either icedor hot, as the season—or the customer—dictates.___________________________________RUM MILK PUNCHSHAKE, BLEND, OR MIX12-oz glass3/4 glass cube ice1 jigger rum1 tsp sugar4 oz milkSprinkle of nutmeg

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